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Critical Thinking Ann Smith Sioux Falls Public Schools.

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Presentation on theme: "Critical Thinking Ann Smith Sioux Falls Public Schools."— Presentation transcript:

1 Critical Thinking Ann Smith Sioux Falls Public Schools

2 What it is- Examples of critical thinkers What it is not— Examples of people who don’t think critically

3 What does it mean to be educated?

4 Activated Knowledge Accurate information that can be used to gain more knowledge Accurate information that can be used to gain more knowledge Mathematical principles Mathematical principles Scientific method Scientific method Principles of critical thinking Principles of critical thinking Paul

5 Am I a critical thinker? Stage 1 - Unreflective Thinker Stage 1 - Unreflective Thinker Egocentric—and unaware Egocentric—and unaware Dismiss ideas we don’t agree with Dismiss ideas we don’t agree with Don’t know what we don’t know Don’t know what we don’t know Stage 2 – Challenged Thinker Stage 2 – Challenged Thinker Strives to analyze thinking Strives to analyze thinking Understands how concepts, assumptions, inferences, implications, and points of view form thinking Understands how concepts, assumptions, inferences, implications, and points of view form thinking Paul

6 Recognizes the qualities of sound thinking: clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, logicalness Recognizes the qualities of sound thinking: clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, logicalness May engage in self-deception: “If everyone would think clearly like me, this would be a fine world.” May engage in self-deception: “If everyone would think clearly like me, this would be a fine world.” The Beginning Thinker The Beginning Thinker Checks information for accuracy and relevance Checks information for accuracy and relevance Recognizes assumptions guiding inferences Recognizes assumptions guiding inferences Identifies prejudicial and biased beliefs, unjustifiable conclusions, misused words, and missed implications Identifies prejudicial and biased beliefs, unjustifiable conclusions, misused words, and missed implications Analyzes the logic of situations and problems Analyzes the logic of situations and problems Expresses clear and precise questions Expresses clear and precise questions Paul

7 Stage 4 – The Practicing Thinker Stage 4 – The Practicing Thinker Stage 5 – The Advanced Thinker Stage 5 – The Advanced Thinker Stage 6 – The Master Thinker Stage 6 – The Master Thinker Paul

8 Habits of Mind Arthur L. Costa & Bena Kallick

9 Habits of Mind Persisting Persisting Thinking and communicating with clarity and precision Thinking and communicating with clarity and precision Managing impulsivity Managing impulsivity Gathering data through all the senses Gathering data through all the senses Listening with understanding and empathy Listening with understanding and empathy Creating, imagining, innovating Creating, imagining, innovating Thinking flexibly Thinking flexibly Responding with wonderment and awe Responding with wonderment and awe

10 Habits of Mind (cont) Thinking about thinking Thinking about thinking Taking responsible risks Taking responsible risks Striving for accuracy Striving for accuracy Finding humor Finding humor Questioning and posing problems Questioning and posing problems Thinking interdependently Thinking interdependently Applying past knowledge to new situations Applying past knowledge to new situations Remaining open to continuous learning Remaining open to continuous learning

11 Strategies for developing critical thinkers Engage students in reading, writing, speaking Engage students in reading, writing, speaking Empower students to evaluate their own reading, writing, speaking Empower students to evaluate their own reading, writing, speaking Think out loud to model skilled thinking for students Think out loud to model skilled thinking for students Compare and contrast different points of view Compare and contrast different points of view Encourage students to question Encourage students to question Assign a daily notetaker or notetaker team Assign a daily notetaker or notetaker team Assign a daily researcher or researcher team Assign a daily researcher or researcher team

12 Parts of Thinking

13 Concepts “A rose by any other name would smell as sweet.” (Shakespeare) “A rose by any other name would smell as sweet.” (Shakespeare) Using precise language Using precise language Clever – Cunning Clever – Cunning Selfish – Self-motivated Selfish – Self-motivated Power – Control Power – Control Believe – Know Believe – Know Love – Romance Love – Romance Socialize – Educate Socialize – Educate Friend -- Colleague Friend -- Colleague Paul

14 Concepts Recognizing socially conditioned meanings Recognizing socially conditioned meanings Capitalism Capitalism Socialism Socialism Communism Communism Paul

15 Point of View Point in time Point in time Culture Culture Religion Religion Gender Gender Sexual orientation Sexual orientation Profession Profession Age group Age group Paul

16 Practice When I look at censorship, I see When I look at censorship, I see When I look at computers, I see When I look at computers, I see When I look at religion, I see…. When I look at religion, I see…. When I look at the past, I see….. When I look at the past, I see….. When I look at our health care system, I see….. When I look at our health care system, I see….. When I look at politics, I see….. When I look at politics, I see….. Paul

17 Inferences and Assumptions Situation: A man is lying in the gutter. Situation: A man is lying in the gutter. Inference: That man’s a bum. Inference: That man’s a bum. Assumption: Only bums lie in gutters. Assumption: Only bums lie in gutters. Situation: A man is lying in the gutter. Situation: A man is lying in the gutter. Inference: That man needs help. Inference: That man needs help. Assumption: Anyone lying in the gutter needs help. Assumption: Anyone lying in the gutter needs help. Paul

18 Practice If there are black clouds in the sky, what might you infer? If there are black clouds in the sky, what might you infer? If a student comes to school with a black eye? If a student comes to school with a black eye? If you are called upon several times during a staff meeting to answer questions about classroom management? If you are called upon several times during a staff meeting to answer questions about classroom management? If a parent requests to have their child be in someone else’s class? If a parent requests to have their child be in someone else’s class? Paul

19 Implications Relating to decisions or actions: Relating to decisions or actions: Possible Possible Probable Probable Inevitable Inevitable Relating to communication Relating to communication Tone of voice, body language Tone of voice, body language Our “inner story” Our “inner story” Context of the sender and the receiver Context of the sender and the receiver Paul

20 Testing Information To what extent could I test the truth of this claim by direct experience? To what extent could I test the truth of this claim by direct experience? How does the person who advances this claim support it? How does the person who advances this claim support it? Is there a definite system or procedure for assessing claims of this sort? Is there a definite system or procedure for assessing claims of this sort? Does the acceptance of this information advance the vested interest of the person or group asserting it? Does the acceptance of this information advance the vested interest of the person or group asserting it? Paul

21 Standards of Thinking

22 Clarity Say what you mean, mean what you say. Say what you mean, mean what you say. "What can be done about the education system in America?“ "What can be done about the education system in America?“ Could you give me an example Could you give me an example Paul

23 Accuracy How could we find out if that is true? How could we find out if that is true? Can it be verified by other sources? Can it be verified by other sources? On the Web, look for hints in the URL On the Web, look for hints in the URL (whois lookup) (whois lookup) On a long URL, delete to the first slash On a long URL, delete to the first slash Bigredhair.com/robots/index.htm Bigredhair.com/robots/index.htm Snopes.com Snopes.com November

24 Precision Can you give more details. Can you give more details. “My daughter has a fever.” “My daughter has a fever.” “My computer doesn’t work.” “My computer doesn’t work.” “Do you know anyone who writes grants for education?” “Do you know anyone who writes grants for education?” “Do you have any books in this library?” “Do you have any books in this library?” Paul

25 Relevance A statement can be clear, accurate, and precise…but irrelevant. A statement can be clear, accurate, and precise…but irrelevant. “I spent 14.6 hours preparing my elementary library budget, so I should be funded at the full level.” “I spent 14.6 hours preparing my elementary library budget, so I should be funded at the full level.” Public figures answering questions at a press conference. Public figures answering questions at a press conference. How does this help us with the issue at hand? How does this help us with the issue at hand? Paul

26 Depth Does the answer address the complexities of the question? Does the answer address the complexities of the question? “Just say no” “Just say no” “God said it, I believe it, that settles it.” “God said it, I believe it, that settles it.” Is it dealing with the most significant factors? Is it dealing with the most significant factors? Paul

27 Breadth Is there another way to look at this question? Is there another way to look at this question? Do we need to consider another point of view? Do we need to consider another point of view? Paul

28 Logic How does that follow? How does that follow? Are these statements contradictory? Are these statements contradictory? Don’t confuse correlation with causation Don’t confuse correlation with causation _imply_causation#Examples _imply_causation#Examples Paul

29 Get “REAL” Read the URL Read the URL Examine the Content Examine the Content Ask about the author and owner Ask about the author and owner Look at the Links Look at the Links Link:http://www.yoursite.com/whatever/copy Link:http://www.yoursite.com/whatever/copy November

30 SMITH (thanks Lee!) Source Source Message Message Intent Intent Techniques Techniques How do they want me to respond How do they want me to respond

31 Questions that stimulate thinking Open-ended questions: Open-ended questions: What are your reactions to this morning’s Keynote speaker? What are your reactions to this morning’s Keynote speaker? What aspects of this unit are of interest to you? What aspects of this unit are of interest to you? What are your reactions to what you just heard? What are your reactions to what you just heard? Paul

32 Diagnostic Questions Diagnostic Questions What is really rewarded in this classroom? What is really rewarded in this classroom? What conclusions did you draw from this data? What conclusions did you draw from this data? Information-seeking Questions Information-seeking Questions What are the factors that influence student engagement? What are the factors that influence student engagement? Paul

33 Challenge (testing) Questions Challenge (testing) Questions Why do you believe that? Why do you believe that? What evidence supports your conclusion? What evidence supports your conclusion? What arguments might be developed to counter that point of view? What arguments might be developed to counter that point of view? Paul

34 Action Questions Action Questions What needs to be done to address this problem? What needs to be done to address this problem? Be specific Be specific Ask someone who has the ability to help Ask someone who has the ability to help Paul

35 Questions on priority and sequence Questions on priority and sequence Given limited resources, what is the first step to be taken? Given limited resources, what is the first step to be taken? The second? The second? The third? The third? Paul

36 Prediction Questions Prediction Questions If your conclusions are correct, what will be our situation tomorrow? In 5 years? In 20 years? If your conclusions are correct, what will be our situation tomorrow? In 5 years? In 20 years? Hypothetical Questions Hypothetical Questions What if Henry Ford’s gasoline engine hadn’t become the standard automobile engine? What if Henry Ford’s gasoline engine hadn’t become the standard automobile engine? What if FDR had not initiated the New Deal? What if FDR had not initiated the New Deal? Paul

37 Questions of extension Questions of extension For your grandchildren, what are the implications of your conclusions about the issue of climate change? For your grandchildren, what are the implications of your conclusions about the issue of climate change? Questions of generalization Questions of generalization Based on our exploration of critical thinking, what do you believe are the major barriers to teaching critical thinking in your classroom? Based on our exploration of critical thinking, what do you believe are the major barriers to teaching critical thinking in your classroom? Paul

38 “For to say, that a blind custom of obedience should be a surer obligation than duty taught and understood; it is to affirm, that a blind man may tread surer by a guide than a seeing man can by a light.” Sir Francis Bacon. The Advancement of Learning.

39 Suggested Resources Costa, Arthur and Bena Kallick. Leading and Learning with Habits of Mind. ASCD Costa, Arthur and Bena Kallick. Leading and Learning with Habits of Mind. ASCD Foundation for Critical Thinking Foundation for Critical Thinking SIRS Researcher (subscription database) SIRS Researcher (subscription database) The Question Mark The Question Mark

40 Resources (cont’d) November, Alan. Web Literacy for Educators. Corwin Press, November, Alan. Web Literacy for Educators. Corwin Press, Paul, Richard. Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Personal and Professional Life. FT Press, Paul, Richard. Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Personal and Professional Life. FT Press, 2002.


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