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Research “Research is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought” – Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, 1937 Nobel Prize Winner for.

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Presentation on theme: "Research “Research is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought” – Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, 1937 Nobel Prize Winner for."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research “Research is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought” – Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, 1937 Nobel Prize Winner for Medicine

2 Intellectual exploration. Research goes into worlds of knowledge beyond personal experience to probe an issue or solve a problem, but research requires a plan and organization.

3 Research Plan  Develop a Topic or Focus  Locate Sources (Two Types of Sources)  Evaluate Sources for Validity  Assess Sources for Usefulness  Notes – Quotes, Summaries & Paraphrasing  Citing Source to Avoid Plagiarism “Research is formalized curiosity. It is poking and prying with a purpose.” – Zora Neale Hurston

4 Develop a Topic or Focus 1.Start with your curiosity, and brainstorm broad ideas. Think about what you already know and what you want to know. 2.Conduct a preliminary reading of general research to discover what sources – pertinent to your topic – are accessible. 3.Refine general topics to a specific question that you can fully explore within the scope of your project.

5 Know Your Sources A world of information is only a mouse-click away, but understanding and evaluating sources will help you find the most reliable and useful research to support your topic and satisfy your curiosity. “Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known.” – Dr. Carl Sagan

6 Primary and Secondary Sources A primary source is the work itself, such as “The Cask of Amontillado,” Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech, A Separate Peace, or Romeo and Juliet. Primary sources can also include journalism, letters and diaries. A secondary source is a work written about a primary source. Examples include critical commentaries such as Catherine Belsey’s essay “The Name of the Rose in Romeo and Juliet” or critical essays in Contemporary Literary Criticism.

7 Classifying Sources Consider this model of sources when selecting the types of research that will most effectively lend authority to your project. General Encyclopedias General-interest Magazines and Newspapers Specialized Magazines Trade Books Government Documents Academic Journals Scholarly Books More Specialized Knowledge More Authoritative

8 Evaluating Sources Ask the following questions to help you determine the reliability of your sources: What are the author’s credentials? In which journal or book is the essay published? (Academic journals required for literary criticism. For historical or social context, popular magazines and newspapers are acceptable, but use a critical eye to evaluate the reputation of the magazine for bias and reliability.) Does the article quote the text and subject you are researching and provide documentation? Does the article include a bibliography at the end? (Hint: you can use a bibliography to locate additional resources on your topic.)

9 Evaluating Sources Let’s take a test run… See if you can pick out the good from the bad and the ugly the good from the bad and the ugly “There is nothing like looking, if you want to find something. You certainly usually find something, if you look, but it is not always quite the something you were after.” – J.R.R. Tolkien

10 Assessing Sources Before you commit to a source, go on a date! Skim the intro and conclusion to consider the author’s tone, point of view and what types of evidence he or she includes to support the thesis. And take a look at the references – the essayist’s research could lead you to a more useful source!

11 Collecting Information Cite the source and bibliographic info in MLA as soon as you access the essay. If you don’t, Murphy’s Law says that later you will need that source and won’t be able to locate it. Read the essay and copy down important passages word for word with all page references and punctuation. This is critical for documenting your sources and avoiding plagiarism (which results in an automatic zero).

12 Quoting, Paraphrasing, Summarizing Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author. Paraphrasing puts a passage from source material into your own words and must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly. Summarizing involves putting the main ideas into your own words, including only the main points. Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.

13 Quoting, Paraphrasing, Summarizing Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes. You might use them to... Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing Refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing Give examples of several points of view on a subject Call attention to a position from which you agree or disagree Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own Expand the breadth or depth of your writing

14 How to Quote, Paraphrase, Summarize 1.Read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas. 2.Summarize in your own words the single main idea. 3.Paraphrase important supporting points. 4.Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly.

15 FAQ Research For this research project, you will look more fully into the social, historical and political circumstances during the genocide from your nonfiction novel group. Start with some general research on the six required questions. Then refine and narrow your focus on further questions that draw your interest or curiosity.

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