About TÜSEV Established in 1993, founded by 23 of Turkey’s leading NGOs 120 members with collective assets over €3bn (US$4.7bn) Members working in areas of education, health, arts, culture and social assistance Programme areas: Law Reform, Social Investment, Research, International Relations EFC Governing Council member and member of EFC since 1994 Also member of the WINGS network, CIVICUS and ISTR For more information: www.tusev.org.trwww.tusev.org.tr
About the Studies Civil Society Index (CSI) Project –Has been designed by CIVICUS. –Implemented in 60 countries around the world. –The first internationally comparative research on Turkish civil society covering a wide range of the sector. Philanthropy in Turkey Project –a compedium of four comprehensive studies on: –the history of foundations in the Ottoman Era, –foundation operations and challenges in modern Turkey, –individual giving and philanthropy.
CSI Country Report and Philanthropy in Turkey Report Media Analysis 3 National Papers 4 Regional Papers 2 TV News Channels Content and Freq. analysis daily for 2 months Philanthropy in Turkey Survey Outcomes 1500 individuals + 44 foundations Survey and Focus Groups 155 individuals from civil society Secondary Data (Overview Report) Case Study: CSO Impact on Human Rights Policy Case Study: CSO Impact on Social Policy Case Study: CSO Impact on National Budget Policy CSR Analysis About the Studies: Research Methodology Qualitative analysis of New Foundations 33 foundations Quantitative analysis of New Foundations 222 Foundations
Findings: Context Foundations in the Ottoman Era as early forms of civil society. Associations in the New Republic 1960s-1980s- Turbulent times politically and socially, causing great restrictions on civic engagement, but emergence of “new” foundations 1996 Habitat Conference- generated civic action 1999 Earthquakes- generated civic response and awareness 2001 EU Candidate for Accession and Copenhagen Criteria- generated political will and momentum for democratic reforms greatly affecting civil society Present- Still some challenges in the environment, better laws, more dialogue, increasing visibility and partnerships
Structure of Civil Society in Turkey One of the main limitations is its limited depth and breadth: There are only 108 associations and 6 foundations (two main legal forms of CSOs) per 100.000 citizens in Turkey. Participation in existing organizations is also low: –18% make donations totalling only about 0.1% of GDP; –7.8% are members, –1.5% are volunteers.
Environment of Civil Society in Turkey Turkey’s democratic reform trajectory (which began in 2001) has ostensibly created a more enabling environment for civil society, and warmed state-civil society relations. However, studies indicate that in practice, CSOs remain hindered by cumbersome administrative procedures and government official interference- especially for rights-based CSOs. Private sector – civil society relations are also improving.
Values of Civil Society in Turkey Democracy, transparency, tolerance, nonviolance, gender equity, poverty eradication, environmental sustainability. Practices of democracy and gender equity within CSOs are weak. Promotion of values regarding environmental sustainability are most prominent, whereas poverty alleviation, promotion of democracy and tolerance are less so.
Impact of Civil Civil Society in Turkey CSOs are increasingly seeking to be active in policy reform activities. However, impact remains limited. One of the weakest aspects is lack of CSO activity to hold state and private sector accountable.