Presentation on theme: "The fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation of the metal welded joints Reporter: Shi Lei Tutor: Chen Xu 2012.11.7."— Presentation transcript:
The fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation of the metal welded joints Reporter: Shi Lei Tutor: Chen Xu 2012.11.7
2 Contents Metallographic structure analysis of welded joints The principles & measurement of fracture toughness The principles & measurement of fatigue cracks propagation
Metallographic structure analysis of welded joints A metal welded joint is consisted of : weld metal area, bond area, heat affect zone and base metal area. Weld metal area: is solidified by liquid metal in a weld pool. It has been considered as a kind of forging organization. The crystalline grains are columnar which are normal to the bottom of the weld pool. Low melting point impurities, such as S and P, are easy to form segregation in the center of the weld line, which decrease the plasticity of the weld and cause heat cracks. Thus the strength of the weld metal is usually not lower than the base metal.
4 The organization of HAZ of not easy quenching steels(low carbon steel and low alloy steel): 1.Fusion zone 2.GCHAZ 3.GRHAZ 4.ICHAZ Fusion zone ： is the junctional zone between the weld metal and base metal. Heating temperature ： 1490 ～ 1530 ℃（固、液相线之间） Structure ： (unmelt but grown by overheat ） coarse-grained structure and （ partly solidified ） forged structure 。 Characterization ： this area is very narrow with not uniform structure, and the strength & plasticity is very poor. So it is the origin of cracks and local brittle fracture. GCHAZ ： is close to the fusion zone. Heating temperature ： 1100 ℃～ 1490 ℃（ 1100 ℃～固相线） Structure ： Overheated structure of coarse grains. Characterization ： The width is about 1 to 3 mm, and plasticity & toughness is decreased. GRHAZ ： is close to the GCHAZ. Heating temperature ： 850 ℃～ 1100 ℃（ AC 3 至 1100 ℃） Structure ： Uniform and fine ferrites and pearlites(approximately normalizing organization). Characterization ： The width is about 1.2 to 4.0 mm, and its mechanic performance is better than the base metal. ICHAZ ： is close to the GRHAZ. Heating temperature ： AC 1 ～ AC 3 Structure ： Not uniform ferrites and pearlites. Characterization ： The phase of partial organization has been changed. The crystalline grains are not uniform, so the mechanic performance is poor.
5 The HV values of the weld: essentially represent the performances of different metallographic organizations. So it is easy to distinguish the different weld zones with the distribution of the HV values.
The principles & measurement of fracture toughness 6
7 Arrest of the plastic zone: 1)Even fracture: Breadth is large. In plane strain state. The plastic zone is small. 2)Oblique fracture: Breadth is small. In plane stress state. The plastic zone is large. 3)Mixed fracture: Breadth is within a certain range.
8 The measurement of fracture toughness(GBT 21143-2007 ): Test sample: Support: Devices: Hydraulic fatigue machine, extensometer, X-Y recorder
The principles & measurement of fatigue cracks propagation 12 Cracks initiation: The cracks initiation of single-phase alloy are usually caused by slip band, while those of heterogeneous alloy are caused by local plastic deformation between heteroatoms and matrix. The logarithmic form: The Paris law:
13 The three stages of fatigue cracks propagation:
14 The measurement of fatigue crack growth rate(GB-T6398): Secant method: Increasing polynomial: