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Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards استدلال برنامه آموزشی تم طولی ، حل مسأله وتصمیم گیری(تفکر نقاد) دانشجویان پزشکی دانشگاه تهران مهر 91 گروه تفکر.

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Presentation on theme: "Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards استدلال برنامه آموزشی تم طولی ، حل مسأله وتصمیم گیری(تفکر نقاد) دانشجویان پزشکی دانشگاه تهران مهر 91 گروه تفکر."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards استدلال برنامه آموزشی تم طولی ، حل مسأله وتصمیم گیری(تفکر نقاد) دانشجویان پزشکی دانشگاه تهران مهر 91 گروه تفکر نقاد وپزشکی مبتنی بر شواهد ترم سوم کارگاه دوم

3 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards رئوس مطالب: بقیه پیچ و مهره های تفکر استانداردها وضوح صحت دقت اهمیت ارتباط کفایت منطقي بودن انصاف وسعت نظر عمق مولفه ها زمینه هدف استنتاج / ادعا پرسش / مسئله مفاهيم ديدگاه سرانجام اطلاعات پیش فرضها ويژگی های ذهنی تواضع عقلی پشتکار عقلی استقلال عقلی اطمينان به استدلال درستی عقلی همدلی عقلی شهامت عقلی منصف بودن باید در موارد زير بكار رود چنان كه مي ‌ آموزيم اين خصا يص را پرورش مي ‌ دهيم

4 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards وضوح آیا می توانی آنچه را گفتی شرح دهی؟ آیا می توانی منظور خود را از طریق مثال روشن کنی؟ آیا می توانی مثالی ارائه دهی یا نه ؟ The key to clarification is concrete, specific examples.

5 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards Clarity is a gateway standard. If a statement is unclear, we cannot determine whether it is accurate or relevant. In fact, we cannot tell anything about it because we don't yet know what it is saying. Example: EBM In philosophy unclear proposition is not worth to evaluate. Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness For example, the question "What can be done about the education system in America?" is unclear.

6 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards To adequately address the question, we would need a clearer understanding of what the person asking the question is considering the "problem" to be. This question, because of its increased clarity, provides a better guide to thinking. It lays out in a more definitive way the intellectual task at hand. Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness A clearer question might be, "What can educators do to ensure that students learn the skills and abilities that help them function successfully on the job and in their daily decision making?"

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8 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards Clearness Is the thinking clear? Is this clear in my mind? Am I saying this clearly? Definition: Your thinking is clear when it's easily understood' when it’s free from the likelihood of misunderstanding, when it‘s readily apparent what follows from it. Related terms: understandable, plain Opposites: Your thinking is,unclear when it is obscure ambiguous, confused, easily misunderstood or you don't see what follows from it. Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness

9 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards CONVERTING UNCLEAR THOUGHTS TO CLEAR THOUGHTS ‎C‎an you convert an unclear thought to one that is clear? Suppose you are engaged in a discussion about welfare and one person says, "Let's face it-welfare is corrupt!" What does this mean? What could it mean? 1.It could mean, "The very idea of giving people goods and services they have not personally earned is equivalent to stealing money from those who have earned it" (a moral claim). 2.Or it could mean, "The welfare laws have so many loophole (escape) that people are receiving money and services that were not envisioned when the laws were initially formulated" (a legal claim). 3.Or it could mean, "The people who receive welfare so often lie and cheat to falsify the documents they submit that they should be thrown in jail" (a claim about the ethical character of the recipients). ‎ Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness

10 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness Clearness Is Context Dependent what is clear in one context is not necessarily clear in another' One Audience Discipline or subject matter Stage of thinking

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12 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards صحت چطور می توانم آن را بررسی کنم؟ چطور می توانم از صحت آن مطمئن شوم؟ چطور می توانم در موردش تحقیق کرده یا آن را امتحان کنم؟ بدبینی متعادلی متفکر انتقادی بدبینی متعادلی درباره توصیفات عمومی ـ درباره چیستی و صحت موضوع ـ دارد.

13 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards انواع دروغ من دروغ میگویم و تو نمیدانی من دروغ میگویم و تو هم میدانی من دروغ میگویم من دروغ میگویم و تو هم میدانی و من هم میدانم که تو میدانی ولی باز میگویم!

14 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards RECOGNIZING INACCURATE STATEMENTS C‎an You identify a Statement that You heard recently that Was clear but inaccurate? you will find an abundance of examples in everyday statements that people often make in praise or criticism. People in general have a tendency to make two kinds of inaccurate statements: false positives about the people they personally like (these would be untrue positive statements about people they like) and false negatives about the people they personally dislike (untrue negative thing, ‎about people they don't like). Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness

15 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards Is the thinking accurate? Are the statements accurate, true? Definition: Aristotle gave one of the clearest definitions of the term true: To say of what is that it is, or of what is not that it is not, is true. We could define accuracy in much the same way: My thinking and my words are accurate when they describe the way things actually are. Related terms: true, well established, confirmed. Opposite: my thinking and my words are inaccurate when they are not in accord with the way things in fact are. Notice that can be inaccurate or false even if I believe they are in accord with reality. Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness

16 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards Impediments: What's Difficult About Being Accurate and Recognizing What's Accurate It is often hard to be open to the accuracy of things we hear, especially if what we hear is threatening to us. lnertia. lt is more comfortable to keep the beliefs we have than to change them, even when we get evidence that our beliefs are not accurate. Wishful thinking and denial. We often let our desires or our fears influence our assessments of what's accurate. The desire to win the lottery blinds us to the fact that we have no realistic chance to win it. People often blind themselves to their own alcoholism and the alcoholism of those they are closest to. Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness

17 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards ” ما حق نداریم از تئوری هایمان دگم بسازیم و به آیه های کتاب سیاسی مان ایمان مذهبی پیدا کنیم. بر ما فرض است که چیزی را که درست انگاشته ایم، در فضایی آزاد از تعصبات شرم آور قشری و در جوی سرشار از فرزانگی، با چیزهایی که دیگران درست انگاشته اند به محک بزنیم تا اگر ما در اشتباه افتاده ایم، دیگران چراغ راهمان شوند و اگر دیگران به راه خطا می روند، ما از لغزش شان مانع شویم...‍

18 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards دقت می توانی صریح تر باشی؟ می توانی جزئیات بیشتری ارائه کنی؟ می توانی دقیق تر باشی؟

19 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards Questions focusing on making thinking more precise include: ‎Could you give me more details? ‎Could you be more specific? Definition: Your thinking is precise when you have been as specific and detailed as needed to reason through an issue. Related terms: when you are satisfied with speaking in generalities without getting down to specific issues. Hot example: what do you want to do to improve outpatient management Answer: we should do our job and you too! Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness

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21 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards Impediments: What's Difficult About Being Precise,We often overlook the need to be precise, lt takes work to be precise. lt means getting specific enough to tell exactly what we are talking about. lt's easy to settle for generalities. We are sometimes too rushed to take the time to make our reasoning precise. Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness

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24 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards ارتباط این موضوع چه ارتباطی به مشکل دارد؟ چطور به مسئله ربط پیدا می کند؟ در رابطه با مسئله چه کمکی به ما می کند؟

25 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards Definition: To say something is important is to say that it matters, If you're thinking about an issue, the thinking is important when it matters in deciding that issue. The thinking is important when it's directly relevant to addressing the problem at hand. Related terms: relevant, main, central, essential, crucial, critical. Opposites: You are focusing on what is unimportant if it makes little or no difference in relation to the question you're addressing. Your thinking can focus on a minor aspect of the problem. At an extreme, your thinking can be irrelevant to the problem at hand. Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness

26 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards عمق چه فاکتورهایی در دشواری این مشکل تاثیر دارند؟ برخی پیچیدگی های این مشکل چیست؟ دشواری هایی که باید به آنها بپردازیم کدامند؟ Example: Let's say you are asked what should be done about the problem of drug use in America and you answer by saying, "Just say no."

27 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards *This slogan, which was for several years used to discourage children and teens from using drugs, is clear, accurate, precise, and relevant. *Nevertheless, it lacks depth because it treats an extremely complex issue, the pervasive problem of drug use among people in our culture superficially. *How much our children admit our reasoning? *It does not address *the history of the problem, *the politics of the problem, *the economics of the problem, *the psychology of addiction, and so on. Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness

28 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards وسعت نظر آیا لازم است از دیدگاه دیگری به این مسئله نگاه کنیم؟ آیا می بایست نقطه نظر دیگری را نیز لحاظ کنیم؟ آیا لازم است این مسئله را به شیوه های دیگری بررسی کنیم؟

29 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards *Humans are frequently guilty of narrow- mindedness for many reasons: *limited education, *innate sociocentrism, *natural selfishness, *self-deception, *and intellectual arrogance. *Points of view that significantly disagree with our own often threaten us. It's much easier to ignore perspectives with which we disagree than to consider them. Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness

30 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness Discussion Differences between depth and breadth. Depth and breadth are aspects or sufficiency; the question is always” Is the person reasoning this out deeply enough (or broadly enough) to accomplish his or her purpose in a reasonable way?” The two standards are not always clearly distinguishable. The goal is to develop an intuitive feel for when it is important to delve (dig) more deeply into an issue, and when it is important to look at it more broadly by taking account of other related issues.

31 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness Example: Imagine yourself on a path going toward a destination. Breadth says to look around you, at the forest, fields, mountains, other travelers, the impending weather. Depth asks you to look deeper: at the solidity of the path itself the state of your muscles when walking it, the strength of your desire to reach the destination, your knowledge of the human body's need for nutrition. One directs you to look around, to take a more comprehensive view of things; the other directs you to look below the surface, to see things in all their depth.

32 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness Depth and theory. One fruitful way to gain depth in your thinking is to look at the theoretical underpinnings (foundation) of the question you are considering. Often we operate by a rule of thumb: Take daily multivitamins, discipline your children without shaming them, set performance quotas (share) as an important part of sales management. When these situations become problematic though, a good place to look is at the theory that underlies them: nutrition theory, child development theory, and sales management theory

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34 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness Impediments: What's Difficult About Reasoning Deeply Enough and Broadly Enough lt is difficult to live with the ambiguity and uncertainty that attend reasonable thinking about so many complex problems. We would like thing to be simpler more clear-cut. All or-nothing answers give us a feeling of control over complex problems. Even the illusion of control is sometimes comforting. Often you may not realize that there are complexities to an issue, In fact, one of the things we learn directly from disciplines is the amount of complexity there is to a seemingly simple issue. example: compare traditional and classic medicine

35 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards منطقی بودن آیا این موارد معقول به نظر می رسند؟ آیا پاراگراف اول با پاراگراف آخر همخوانی دارد؟ آیا حرفهایت از شواهد ناشی می شوند؟

36 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards *‎Example: Say that you know a person who has had a heart attack, and her doctors have told her she must be careful what she eats, to avoid problems in the future. Yet she concludes that what she eats really doesn't matter. Given the evidence, her conclusion is illogical. It doesn't make sense. *Example: *Our practitioners do not know common problems, but they should be at high level ground rounds *To increase rank of health, medical education is very important, but its rank is very low, *Thinking is very important, but our education is based on recall Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness

37 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards اهمیت آیا این مهم ترین مشکل برای بررسی است؟ آیا این ایده مرکزی است که باید رویش تمرکز کرد؟ کدام یک از این حقایق اهمیت بیشتری دارد؟ گرچه ایده های مربوط زیادی وجود دارند، اما همگی آنها اهمیت یکسانی ندارند.

38 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards *Too often we fail in our thinking because we do not recognize that, though many ideas may be relevant to an issue, it does not follow that all are equally important. *Example: *In college, few students focus on important questions such as, "What does it mean to be an educated person? What do I need to do to become educated?“ *Instead, students tend to ask questions such as, "What do I need to do to get an 'A' in this course? How many pages does this paper have to be? What do I have to do to satisfy this professor?" Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness

39 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards *‎FOCUSING ON SIGNIFICANCE IN THINKING *T‎hink about your life, about the way you spend your time in terms of the amount of time you spend on significant versus trivial things. As you do so write the answers to these questions: ‎ 1.What is the most important goal or purpose you should focus on at this point in your life? Why is this purpose important? How much time do you spend focused on it? ‎ 2.What are the most trivial or superficial things you spend time focused on (things such as your appearance, impressing your friends, chatting about insignificant things at parties, and the like)? ‎ 3.What can you do to reduce the amount of time you spend on the trivial and increase the amount of time you spend on the significant? Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness

40 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards Has this been reasoned out sufficiently? Have reasoned this out enough to decide the issue reasonably? Definition: Your thinking about a question or an issue is sufficient when you have reasoned it out thoroughly enough for the purpose at hand. when it is adequate for what is needed when you've taken account of all necessary factors. Related terms: adequate, enough, complete, comprehensive, thorough 0pposites: when there are other essential factors for you to address before you decide this issue. Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness Sufficiency

41 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards ‎‎‎ Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness Sufficiency

42 Critical Thinking Intellectual Standards ‎‎‎Impediments: What's Difficult About Reasoning Through Something Sufficiently jumping to conclusions (biased jumper) a tendency to reason through unimportant issues too much and through important issues too little sticking with pre-established views that seem sufficient because we have not examined alternatives. unreasonable standards (such as perfectionism) of what counts as enough lack of relevant background knowledge is imply for getting to ask, “is this sufficient?“ is it enough?'‘ Medical stuffs have a very limited knowledge about human! Clarity Accuracy Precision Relevance Depth Breadth Logicalness Significance Fairness Sufficiency


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