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Chapter 8- Curriculum Design

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1 Chapter 8- Curriculum Design
The “gestalt” of the curriculum plan Curriculum design is also called curriculum organization

2 Design the arrangement of the elements of a curriculum into a substantive entity

3 Elements of Curriculum Design
Aims, Goals, and Objectives Subject Matter Learning Experiences Evaluation Approaches Giles: the four components interact with one another (see p 233) Curriculum design involves various philosophical or theoretical issues as well as practical issues A curriculum design provides a framework or frameworks implying values and priorities. Note Doll’s differentiation between curriculum design and instructional design (p234) ???

4 Sources for Curriculum Design
Science Society Eternal and Divine Sources Knowledge Learner Those charged with curriculum design must clarify their philosophical and social views of society and the individual learner---sources of curriculum

5 Science as a Source Scientific method provides meaning for the curriculum design Designs that stress learning how to learn or “thinking” curricula emphasize scientific procedures Coincides with the scientific and rational world of Western culture

6 Society as a Source School is an agent of society, thus the school should draw its ideas for the curriculum from the analysis of the social situation Curriculum design can only be completely understood if it is contextualized socially, economically, and politically

7 Eternal and Divine Sources
Draw on the past for guidance as to what is appropriate content Related to eternal truth revealed through such sources as the Bible or other religious documents Realization of the importance of people’s values and personal morality Spirituality: not reference to divinity but lived reality, experience and the possibility of experiencing Drawing upon spirituality allows the curriculum to be undergirded by questions about the nature of the world, the purpose of life, and what it means to be human and to be knowledgeable.

8 Knowledge as a Source Disciplined Knowledge Undisciplined Knowledge
has a particular method or methods by which scholars extend its boundaries Undisciplined Knowledge does not have unique content, but has content that is clustered according to the focus of the investigation Knowledge as a source does not leave out any particular content. Hunkins: knowledge is the only source or curriculum and society and what we know about learners serve as filters in the selection of content.

9 The Learner as a Source Curriculum should be derived from what we know about the learner---how he learns. Forms attitudes, generates interests, and develops values We take the hallmarks of what makes a person a learner and try to emphasize them in the curriculum organization We accept as the purpose of the curriculum the emancipation of the individual. Key features: learning by doing; emphasis on the social construction and reconstruction of knowledge and the empowerment of the individuals to be engaged in these processes.

10 Conceptual Framework Horizontal organization scope and integration
side by side arrangement of curriculum elements sequence and continuity longitudinal placement of curriculum elements

11 Design Dimension Considerations
Scope Sequence Continuity Integration Articulation Balance

12 Scope breath and depth of curriculum content
Tyler’s definition of scope: all the content, topics, learning experiences, and organizing threads comprising the educational plan Need to limit the scope of the curriculum through limited objectives Need to consider the cognitive, affective, psychomotor domains of learning, as well as the moral or spiritual domain.

13 Sequence vertical relationship among curricular areas
the occurrence and reoccurrence of content and experiences so that students will have opportunities to connect and enrich their understanding of the curriculum presented or experienced Should the sequence of content and experiences be based on the logic of the subject matter or on the way in which individuals process knowledge Smith, Stanley and Shores learning principles to guide sequence: 1. Simple to complex learning 2. Prerequisite learning 3. Whole to part learning 4. Chronological learning Posner and Strike organizers for sequence Concept related Inquiry related Learning related Utilization related

14 Continuity vertical manipulation or repetition of curriculum components Accounts for the reappearance of certain major ideas or skills about which educators believe students should have increased depth and breath of knowledge over the length of the curriculum Bruner’s Spiral Curriculum

15 Integration linking of all types of knowledge and experiences contained within the curriculum plan enables the individual to comprehend knowledge as unified Integration occurs in the learner, not in the curriculum plan---Taba, Goodlad, et. al. Taba: we need to develop common knowledge by dealing with ideas that transcend and connect fields of study. We need to move to broader organization of knowledge. Eisner: when considering curriculum integration, we arrange curricula phenomena such that the individual’s intellects and hearts, and perhaps their souls are addressed. The increased attention to integration results is part from the ongoing discussion of postmodernism, constructionism, and poststructualism---Knowledge is not separated form its reality, people cannot really disconnect themselves from their inquiry and the curriculum cannot exist as separate bits.

16 Articulation Vertical Articulation Horizontal Articulation
depicts the relationships of certain aspects in the curriculum sequence to lessons, topics, or courses appearing later in the program’s sequence Horizontal Articulation refers to the association between or among elements occurring simultaneously The key reason for addressing vertical articulation is to assure that students receive those learnings that are prerequisite to later learnings in the curriculum. Horizontal articulation is also called correlation

17 Balance giving appropriate weight to each aspect of the design so that distortions do not occur Note Oliva’s set of nine points to consider in attaining balance in the curriculum (p243)

18 Representative Curriculum Designs
Subject-Centered Designs Learner-Centered Designs Problem-Centered Designs

19 Subject-Centered Designs
Subject Design Discipline Design Broad Fields Design Correlation Design Process Design Subject centered designs are the most popular and widely used Schools have a strong history of academic rationalism; furthermore, the materials available for school use also reflect content organization.

20 Subject Design Based on the belief that what makes humans unique and distinctive is their intellect and the searching for and attainment of knowledge are the natural fulfillment of that intellect Curriculum is organized according to how essential knowledge has been developed in the various subject areas

21 Subject Design-Strengths & Weaknesses
Emphasis on verbal activities Introduces students to the essential knowledge of society Easy to deliver Traditional Prevents individualization Disempowers students Fails to foster social, psychological, and physical development Compartmentalizes learning Neglects students’ needs, interests, experiences Fosters passivity

22 Discipline Design Based on the inherent organization of content
The manner in which content is learned is suggested by the methods scholars employ to study the content of their fields. Note King and Brownell’s definition of a discipline (p 245)

23 Discipline Design-Strengths & Weaknesses
Students attain mastery of content and independent learning Subjects to be taught to any child at any stage of development Ignores information that cannot be classified as disciplined knowledge Addresses only the interests of the college bound Students must adapt to the curriculum

24 Broad Fields Design (Interdisciplinary)
Attempts to integrate content that appears to fit together logically Allows students to discern relationships among the various aspects of the curriculum content, as well as wholeness of meaning Students are invited to participate through the construction of meaning in grasping the meaning or meanings of the whole

25 Broad Fields- Strengths & Weaknesses
Allows students to discern relationships among various aspects of curriculum content Students participate in the construction of meaning Issue of breadth vs depth

26 Correlation Design Allows for some linkage of separate subjects in order to reduce fragmentation of the curricular content

27 Correlation- Strengths & Weaknesses
Allows linkage of some subjects to reduce fragmentation Requires alternative forms of scheduling Requires teachers to plan differently (cooperatively)

28 Process Design Gives attention to the procedures and processes by which individuals advance knowledge, either in specific disciplines or in general Emphasizes those procedures and dispositions to act that enable students to analyze their realities and create frameworks by which the knowledge derived can be arranged

29 Process- Strengths & Weaknesses
Teaches how to learn and think critically Lacks emphasis on content

30 Learner-Centered Designs
Child Centered Designs Experience-Centered Designs Romantic (Radical) Designs Humanistic Designs Students are the center or focus of the program

31 Child Centered Designs
Students must be active in their environments if we are to optimize learning Curriculum should be based on students’ lives, needs, and interests

32 Child-Centered Strengths & Weaknesses
Empowers students through ownership of knowledge Allows for constructivist learning Content not specific

33 Experience Centered Designs
Everything has to be done “on the spot”---we cannot anticipate the interests and needs of children

34 Experience Centered Strengths & Weaknesses
Based on natural experiences of children Not specific

35 Romantic (Radical) Designs
Emancipation is the goal of education Individuals should gain those awarenesses, competencies, and attitudes to enable them to take control of their lives Learning results from the interaction among people; by challenging content and permitting different views about the content, as well as from critiquing the purposes of the information presented

36 Romantic Strengths & Weaknesses
Emancipates the learner Threatens status quo

37 Humanistic Designs The focus of attention should be on the subject nature of human existence; there is a relationship between learning and feeling Empowering individuals Stress the development of positive self-concept and interpersonal skills

38 Humanistic Strengths &Weaknesses
Promotes self esteem Empowers individuals Inadequate consideration of methods in light of consequences for learners Inconsistent emphasis on uniqueness of individuals and activities that all students experience Too much emphasis on the needs of the individual over the overall society Does not integrate what is known about human learning and development

39 Problem-Centered Designs
Life-Situations Design Core Design Social problems and Reconstructionist Designs Focus on the problems of living-- on the perceived realities of institutional and group life-- for the individual and the society in general Are organized to reinforce cultural traditions and also to address those community and societal needs that are currently unmet.

40 Life Situation Design Persistent life situations are crucial to a society’s successful functioning; it makes sense to organize a curriculum around them Students will see direct relevance to what they are studying if the content is organized around aspects of community life By having students study social or life situations, they not only study ways to improve society but become directly involved in that improvement Strengths: Focus on problem solving procedures for learning Uses the past and current experiences of learners as a means of getting them to analyze the basic areas of living Presents subject matter in an integrated from by cutting across the separate subjects and centering on related categories of social life Weaknesses Determining the scope and sequence of essential areas of living is difficult Does not adequately expose students to their cultural heritage Teachers lack adequate preparation

41 Life Situations Strengths & Weaknesses
Presents subject matter in an integrated manner Encourages students to learn and apply problem solving procedures Relevant How to determine scope and sequence of essential areas of learning Does not expose student adequately to their cultural heritage Nontraditional

42 Core Design Centers on general education and is based on problems arising out of common human activities Variations subject matter core designs areas of living core designs See recommended characteristics of problem solving (p ) Strengths: presents relevant subject matter and encourages active processing of information fosters intrinsic motivation in students fosters democratic practices in the classroom through cooperative learning Weaknesses Departs significantly from a traditional curriculum Ignores fundamentals Materials hard to find

43 Core Strengths & Weaknesses
Unifies content Provides relevant subject matter Encourages active processing of information Fosters democratic processes in the classroom Nontraditional Ignores the fundamentals Materials are hard to find Requires an exceptional teacher

44 Social Problems and Reconstructionist Design
Curriculum should address contemporary social problems and social action projects aimed at reconstructing society Educators will effect social change and create a more just society Counts Rugg Brameld Shane The social Reconstructionist curriculum has the primary purpose of engaging the learner in analyzing the many severe problems confronting humankind

45 Strengths & Weaknesses

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