Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8- Curriculum Design"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 8- Curriculum Design The “gestalt” of the curriculum planCurriculum design is also called curriculum organization
2 Designthe arrangement of the elements of a curriculum into a substantive entity
3 Elements of Curriculum Design Aims, Goals, and ObjectivesSubject MatterLearning ExperiencesEvaluation ApproachesGiles: the four components interact with one another (see p 233)Curriculum design involves various philosophical or theoretical issues as well as practical issuesA curriculum design provides a framework or frameworks implying values and priorities.Note Doll’s differentiation between curriculum design and instructional design (p234) ???
4 Sources for Curriculum Design ScienceSocietyEternal and Divine SourcesKnowledgeLearnerThose charged with curriculum design must clarify their philosophical and social views of society and the individual learner---sources of curriculum
5 Science as a SourceScientific method provides meaning for the curriculum designDesigns that stress learning how to learn or “thinking” curricula emphasize scientific proceduresCoincides with the scientific and rational world of Western culture
6 Society as a SourceSchool is an agent of society, thus the school should draw its ideas for the curriculum from the analysis of the social situationCurriculum design can only be completely understood if it is contextualized socially, economically, and politically
7 Eternal and Divine Sources Draw on the past for guidance as to what is appropriate contentRelated to eternal truth revealed through such sources as the Bible or other religious documentsRealization of the importance of people’s values and personal moralitySpirituality: not reference to divinity but lived reality, experience and the possibility of experiencingDrawing upon spirituality allows the curriculum to be undergirded by questions about the nature of the world, the purpose of life, and what it means to be human and to be knowledgeable.
8 Knowledge as a Source Disciplined Knowledge Undisciplined Knowledge has a particular method or methods by which scholars extend its boundariesUndisciplined Knowledgedoes not have unique content, but has content that is clustered according to the focus of the investigationKnowledge as a source does not leave out any particular content.Hunkins: knowledge is the only source or curriculum and society and what we know about learners serve as filters in the selection of content.
9 The Learner as a SourceCurriculum should be derived from what we know about the learner---how he learns. Forms attitudes, generates interests, and develops valuesWe take the hallmarks of what makes a person a learner and try to emphasize them in the curriculum organizationWe accept as the purpose of the curriculum the emancipation of the individual.Key features: learning by doing; emphasis on the social construction and reconstruction of knowledge and the empowerment of the individuals to be engaged in these processes.
10 Conceptual Framework Horizontal organization scope and integration side by side arrangement of curriculum elementssequence and continuitylongitudinal placement of curriculum elements
12 Scope breath and depth of curriculum content Tyler’s definition of scope: all the content, topics, learning experiences, and organizing threads comprising the educational planNeed to limit the scope of the curriculum through limited objectivesNeed to consider the cognitive, affective, psychomotor domains of learning, as well as the moral or spiritual domain.
13 Sequence vertical relationship among curricular areas the occurrence and reoccurrence of content and experiences so that students will have opportunities to connect and enrich their understanding of the curriculum presented or experiencedShould the sequence of content and experiences be based on the logic of the subject matter or on the way in which individuals process knowledgeSmith, Stanley and Shores learning principles to guide sequence:1. Simple to complex learning2. Prerequisite learning3. Whole to part learning4. Chronological learningPosner and Strike organizers for sequenceConcept relatedInquiry relatedLearning relatedUtilization related
14 Continuityvertical manipulation or repetition of curriculum componentsAccounts for the reappearance of certain major ideas or skills about which educators believe students should have increased depth and breath of knowledge over the length of the curriculumBruner’s Spiral Curriculum
15 Integrationlinking of all types of knowledge and experiences contained within the curriculum planenables the individual to comprehend knowledge as unifiedIntegration occurs in the learner, not in the curriculum plan---Taba, Goodlad, et. al.Taba: we need to develop common knowledge by dealing with ideas that transcend and connect fields of study. We need to move to broader organization of knowledge.Eisner: when considering curriculum integration, we arrange curricula phenomena such that the individual’s intellects and hearts, and perhaps their souls are addressed.The increased attention to integration results is part from the ongoing discussion of postmodernism, constructionism, and poststructualism---Knowledge is not separated form its reality, people cannot really disconnect themselves from their inquiry and the curriculum cannot exist as separate bits.
16 Articulation Vertical Articulation Horizontal Articulation depicts the relationships of certain aspects in the curriculum sequence to lessons, topics, or courses appearing later in the program’s sequenceHorizontal Articulationrefers to the association between or among elements occurring simultaneouslyThe key reason for addressing vertical articulation is to assure that students receive those learnings that are prerequisite to later learnings in the curriculum.Horizontal articulation is also called correlation
17 Balancegiving appropriate weight to each aspect of the design so that distortions do not occurNote Oliva’s set of nine points to consider in attaining balance in the curriculum (p243)
19 Subject-Centered Designs Subject DesignDiscipline DesignBroad Fields DesignCorrelation DesignProcess DesignSubject centered designs are the most popular and widely usedSchools have a strong history of academic rationalism; furthermore, the materials available for school use also reflect content organization.
20 Subject DesignBased on the belief that what makes humans unique and distinctive is their intellect and the searching for and attainment of knowledge are the natural fulfillment of that intellectCurriculum is organized according to how essential knowledge has been developed in the various subject areas
21 Subject Design-Strengths & Weaknesses Emphasis on verbal activitiesIntroduces students to the essential knowledge of societyEasy to deliverTraditionalPrevents individualizationDisempowers studentsFails to foster social, psychological, and physical developmentCompartmentalizes learningNeglects students’ needs, interests, experiencesFosters passivity
22 Discipline Design Based on the inherent organization of content The manner in which content is learned is suggested by the methods scholars employ to study the content of their fields.Note King and Brownell’s definition of a discipline (p 245)
23 Discipline Design-Strengths & Weaknesses Students attain mastery of content and independent learningSubjects to be taught to any child at any stage of developmentIgnores information that cannot be classified as disciplined knowledgeAddresses only the interests of the college boundStudents must adapt to the curriculum
24 Broad Fields Design (Interdisciplinary) Attempts to integrate content that appears to fit together logicallyAllows students to discern relationships among the various aspects of the curriculum content, as well as wholeness of meaningStudents are invited to participate through the construction of meaning in grasping the meaning or meanings of the whole
25 Broad Fields- Strengths & Weaknesses Allows students to discern relationships among various aspects of curriculum contentStudents participate in the construction of meaningIssue of breadth vs depth
26 Correlation DesignAllows for some linkage of separate subjects in order to reduce fragmentation of the curricular content
27 Correlation- Strengths & Weaknesses Allows linkage of some subjects to reduce fragmentationRequires alternative forms of schedulingRequires teachers to plan differently (cooperatively)
28 Process DesignGives attention to the procedures and processes by which individuals advance knowledge, either in specific disciplines or in generalEmphasizes those procedures and dispositions to act that enable students to analyze their realities and create frameworks by which the knowledge derived can be arranged
29 Process- Strengths & Weaknesses Teaches how to learn and think criticallyLacks emphasis on content
30 Learner-Centered Designs Child Centered DesignsExperience-Centered DesignsRomantic (Radical) DesignsHumanistic DesignsStudents are the center or focus of the program
31 Child Centered Designs Students must be active in their environments if we are to optimize learningCurriculum should be based on students’ lives, needs, and interests
32 Child-Centered Strengths & Weaknesses Empowers students through ownership of knowledgeAllows for constructivist learningContent not specific
33 Experience Centered Designs Everything has to be done “on the spot”---we cannot anticipate the interests and needs of children
34 Experience Centered Strengths & Weaknesses Based on natural experiences of childrenNot specific
35 Romantic (Radical) Designs Emancipation is the goal of educationIndividuals should gain those awarenesses, competencies, and attitudes to enable them to take control of their livesLearning results from the interaction among people; by challenging content and permitting different views about the content, as well as from critiquing the purposes of the information presented
36 Romantic Strengths & Weaknesses Emancipates the learnerThreatens status quo
37 Humanistic DesignsThe focus of attention should be on the subject nature of human existence; there is a relationship between learning and feelingEmpowering individualsStress the development of positive self-concept and interpersonal skills
38 Humanistic Strengths &Weaknesses Promotes self esteemEmpowers individualsInadequate consideration of methods in light of consequences for learnersInconsistent emphasis on uniqueness of individuals and activities that all students experienceToo much emphasis on the needs of the individual over the overall societyDoes not integrate what is known about human learning and development
39 Problem-Centered Designs Life-Situations DesignCore DesignSocial problems and Reconstructionist DesignsFocus on the problems of living-- on the perceived realities of institutional and group life-- for the individual and the society in generalAre organized to reinforce cultural traditions and also to address those community and societal needs that are currently unmet.
40 Life Situation DesignPersistent life situations are crucial to a society’s successful functioning; it makes sense to organize a curriculum around themStudents will see direct relevance to what they are studying if the content is organized around aspects of community lifeBy having students study social or life situations, they not only study ways to improve society but become directly involved in that improvementStrengths:Focus on problem solving procedures for learningUses the past and current experiences of learners as a means of getting them to analyze the basic areas of livingPresents subject matter in an integrated from by cutting across the separate subjects and centering on related categories of social lifeWeaknessesDetermining the scope and sequence of essential areas of living is difficultDoes not adequately expose students to their cultural heritageTeachers lack adequate preparation
41 Life Situations Strengths & Weaknesses Presents subject matter in an integrated mannerEncourages students to learn and apply problem solving proceduresRelevantHow to determine scope and sequence of essential areas of learningDoes not expose student adequately to their cultural heritageNontraditional
42 Core DesignCenters on general education and is based on problems arising out of common human activitiesVariationssubject matter core designsareas of living core designsSee recommended characteristics of problem solving (p )Strengths:presents relevant subject matter and encourages active processing of informationfosters intrinsic motivation in studentsfosters democratic practices in the classroom through cooperative learningWeaknessesDeparts significantly from a traditional curriculumIgnores fundamentalsMaterials hard to find
43 Core Strengths & Weaknesses Unifies contentProvides relevant subject matterEncourages active processing of informationFosters democratic processes in the classroomNontraditionalIgnores the fundamentalsMaterials are hard to findRequires an exceptional teacher
44 Social Problems and Reconstructionist Design Curriculum should address contemporary social problems and social action projects aimed at reconstructing societyEducators will effect social change and create a more just societyCountsRuggBrameldShaneThe social Reconstructionist curriculum has the primary purpose of engaging the learner in analyzing the many severe problems confronting humankind