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Chapter 8- Curriculum Design. Design l the arrangement of the elements of a curriculum into a substantive entity.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8- Curriculum Design. Design l the arrangement of the elements of a curriculum into a substantive entity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8- Curriculum Design

2 Design l the arrangement of the elements of a curriculum into a substantive entity

3 Elements of Curriculum Design l Aims, Goals, and Objectives l Subject Matter l Learning Experiences l Evaluation Approaches

4 Sources for Curriculum Design l Science l Society l Eternal and Divine Sources l Knowledge l Learner

5 Science as a Source l Scientific method provides meaning for the curriculum design l Designs that stress learning how to learn or “thinking” curricula emphasize scientific procedures l Coincides with the scientific and rational world of Western culture

6 Society as a Source l School is an agent of society, thus the school should draw its ideas for the curriculum from the analysis of the social situation l Curriculum design can only be completely understood if it is contextualized socially, economically, and politically

7 Eternal and Divine Sources l Draw on the past for guidance as to what is appropriate content l Related to eternal truth revealed through such sources as the Bible or other religious documents

8 Knowledge as a Source l Disciplined Knowledge has a particular method or methods by which scholars extend its boundaries l Undisciplined Knowledge does not have unique content, but has content that is clustered according to the focus of the investigation

9 The Learner as a Source l Curriculum should be derived from what we know about the learner---how he learns. Forms attitudes, generates interests, and develops values

10 Conceptual Framework l Horizontal organization scope and integration side by side arrangement of curriculum elements sequence and continuity longitudinal placement of curriculum elements

11 Design Dimension Considerations l Scope l Sequence l Continuity l Integration l Articulation l Balance

12 Scope l breath and depth of curriculum content

13 Sequence l vertical relationship among curricular areas l the occurrence and reoccurrence of content and experiences so that students will have opportunities to connect and enrich their understanding of the curriculum presented or experienced

14 Continuity l vertical manipulation or repetition of curriculum components

15 Integration l linking of all types of knowledge and experiences contained within the curriculum plan l enables the individual to comprehend knowledge as unified

16 Articulation l Vertical Articulation depicts the relationships of certain aspects in the curriculum sequence to lessons, topics, or courses appearing later in the program’s sequence l Horizontal Articulation refers to the association between or among elements occurring simultaneously

17 Balance l giving appropriate weight to each aspect of the design so that distortions do not occur

18 Representative Curriculum Designs l Subject-Centered Designs l Learner-Centered Designs l Problem-Centered Designs

19 Subject-Centered Designs l Subject Design l Discipline Design l Broad Fields Design l Correlation Design l Process Design

20 Subject Design l Based on the belief that what makes humans unique and distinctive is their intellect and the searching for and attainment of knowledge are the natural fulfillment of that intellect l Curriculum is organized according to how essential knowledge has been developed in the various subject areas

21 Subject Design-Strengths & Weaknesses l Emphasis on verbal activities l Introduces students to the essential knowledge of society l Easy to deliver l Traditional l Prevents individualization l Disempowers students l Fails to foster social, psychological, and physical development l Compartmentalizes learning l Neglects students’ needs, interests, experiences l Fosters passivity

22 Discipline Design l Based on the inherent organization of content l The manner in which content is learned is suggested by the methods scholars employ to study the content of their fields.

23 Discipline Design- Strengths & Weaknesses l Students attain mastery of content and independent learning l Subjects to be taught to any child at any stage of development l Ignores information that cannot be classified as disciplined knowledge l Addresses only the interests of the college bound l Students must adapt to the curriculum

24 Broad Fields Design (Interdisciplinary) l Attempts to integrate content that appears to fit together logically l Allows students to discern relationships among the various aspects of the curriculum content, as well as wholeness of meaning l Students are invited to participate through the construction of meaning in grasping the meaning or meanings of the whole

25 Broad Fields- Strengths & Weaknesses l Allows students to discern relationships among various aspects of curriculum content l Students participate in the construction of meaning l Issue of breadth vs depth

26 Correlation Design l Allows for some linkage of separate subjects in order to reduce fragmentation of the curricular content

27 Correlation- Strengths & Weaknesses l Allows linkage of some subjects to reduce fragmentation l Requires alternative forms of scheduling l Requires teachers to plan differently (cooperatively)

28 Process Design l Gives attention to the procedures and processes by which individuals advance knowledge, either in specific disciplines or in general l Emphasizes those procedures and dispositions to act that enable students to analyze their realities and create frameworks by which the knowledge derived can be arranged

29 Process- Strengths & Weaknesses l Teaches how to learn and think critically l Lacks emphasis on content

30 Learner-Centered Designs l Child Centered Designs l Experience-Centered Designs l Romantic (Radical) Designs l Humanistic Designs

31 Child Centered Designs l Students must be active in their environments if we are to optimize learning l Curriculum should be based on students’ lives, needs, and interests

32 Child-Centered Strengths & Weaknesses l Empowers students through ownership of knowledge l Allows for constructivist learning l Content not specific

33 Experience Centered Designs l Everything has to be done “on the spot”---we cannot anticipate the interests and needs of children

34 Experience Centered Strengths & Weaknesses l Based on natural experiences of children l Not specific

35 Romantic (Radical) Designs l Emancipation is the goal of education l Individuals should gain those awarenesses, competencies, and attitudes to enable them to take control of their lives l Learning results from the interaction among people; by challenging content and permitting different views about the content, as well as from critiquing the purposes of the information presented

36 Romantic Strengths & Weaknesses l Emancipates the learner l Threatens status quo

37 Humanistic Designs l The focus of attention should be on the subject nature of human existence; there is a relationship between learning and feeling l Empowering individuals l Stress the development of positive self-concept and interpersonal skills

38 Humanistic Strengths &Weaknesses l Promotes self esteem l Empowers individuals l Inadequate consideration of methods in light of consequences for learners l Inconsistent emphasis on uniqueness of individuals and activities that all students experience l Too much emphasis on the needs of the individual over the overall society l Does not integrate what is known about human learning and development

39 Problem-Centered Designs l Life-Situations Design l Core Design l Social problems and Reconstructionist Designs

40 l Persistent life situations are crucial to a society’s successful functioning; it makes sense to organize a curriculum around them l Students will see direct relevance to what they are studying if the content is organized around aspects of community life l By having students study social or life situations, they not only study ways to improve society but become directly involved in that improvement Life Situation Design

41 Life Situations Strengths & Weaknesses l Presents subject matter in an integrated manner l Encourages students to learn and apply problem solving procedures l Relevant l How to determine scope and sequence of essential areas of learning l Does not expose student adequately to their cultural heritage l Nontraditional

42 l Centers on general education and is based on problems arising out of common human activities Core Design

43 Core Strengths & Weaknesses l Unifies content l Provides relevant subject matter l Encourages active processing of information l Fosters democratic processes in the classroom l Nontraditional l Ignores the fundamentals l Materials are hard to find l Requires an exceptional teacher

44 Social Problems and Reconstructionist Design l Curriculum should address contemporary social problems and social action projects aimed at reconstructing society l Educators will effect social change and create a more just society

45 Strengths & Weaknesses

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