2Reading Comprehension the ability to make meaning out of text.Students must:Be able to make personal connections with the textUnderstand meaning of vocabulary usedUnderstand text structureUnderstand purpose for reading
3Reading Comprehension Skills DecodingAbility to use letter-sound relationships to decipher wordsFluencyAutomaticity, appropriate reading rateVocabulary knowledgeBreadth, and depth, of vocabulary knowledge is important, i.e., not just the number of words students know, but the depth of their understandingBackground knowledgeA conceptual framework, or context, into which students can fit new ideasKnowledge of comprehension strategies
4Teaching Comprehension to ELLs Solution:Explicit teaching of vocabularyPreview unfamiliar concepts/ideas before reading. Create connections to familiar conceptsTeach comprehension strategies through modelingIssue:Limited vocabularyDifferent background knowledgeLack of effective strategies for comprehension
5Modeling Reading This part didn’t make sense. Model effective reading strategies, such asre-reading.This part didn’t make sense.I think I’ll re-read to see if I get it the second time.
6Teaching Vocabulary Focus lesson on key words Teach vocabulary intentionallyExplicit definitionsUse cognates when possibleUse “student-friendly” definitionsWriting activitiesClassroom discussionsUse context to teach words with multiple meanings
7Vocabulary Strategy: Index Cards Include:CognatesSynonyms/AntonymsPictureOther concepts that help them relate to the wordHelp students “own” wordsInteracting with the vocabulary helps students understand that words aren’t just something they need to studyBy creating their own meaningful definitions, students are empowered to analyze new English vocabulary, and draw on their own knowledge as a resource
8Preparing for Reading Establish goals for reading Anticipation guidesFocus questionsMaking predictions“Gist” statementsThese are “golden nugget” statements: concise ideas about what might happen based on provided information from the text (such as key vocabulary).Focus on vocabulary conceptsPreview key words & other vocabularyExplore/activate background knowledgeProvide bridges between new concepts and what children already know
9Video Becoming Bilingual: Two Languages at Once Webster Elementary, Long Beach, CA
10Role of Native Language “The effects of primary language instructionare modest, but they are real and reliable.”— Claude GoldenbergStrong literacy skills in native language transfer to second languageThe level of reading skills in native language is an important predictor of successful second language reading acquisition
12Comprehension Strategies for ELLs Strategies to use while readingQuestioningAsk and answer questions about readingsSummarizingUsing graphic organizersMonitoring comprehension as students readUsing text characteristics to aid comprehensionheadings, bold type, etc.Note taking
13Cognates A word that is closely related to another word in another language.RememberIf students are using cognates it is important to make the process obvious: highlight the strategy.Help students realize that using cognates is a tool for comprehension.
14Using Cognate Word Walls Word walls are created by the teacher,and the class, as a way to displayvocabulary that they are using.A classroom might have large posters with different letters of the alphabet at the top. The posters have cognates written on them in alphabetical order. Students can add cognates as they discover them and refer to the lists when they are reading to see if they can get the meaning that way.
15Making Predictions Younger children Older children Based on pictures GraphsIllustrations
16Language Functions Narrative text Re-telling Vocabulary for descriptionAdjectivesComparative languageRe-tellingVocabulary for order & sequencingFirst, next, afterwards
17Helping ELLs Achieve Academic Proficiency Finding important information in textLabelingWorking with information in alternative waysHelp make concepts concreteUsing play dough to create a cell in biology class enables students to use academic vocabulary during the process.
18Social vs. Academic Proficiency Social proficiencyLanguage used in day-to-day interactionsVariety of cues facilitate comprehensionEnvironment, gestures, facial expressions, etc.Academic proficiencyLanguage used in textbooksMore abstractHigher order skills
19Strategies for Effective Reading Relate vocabulary to cognatesUse cues from illustrationsRe-readExcellent strategy for building fluency and reading rate.Read aloudPractice comprehension skills through listening to oral reading.Keep reading logs
20Language Strategies for Mastering Academic English Using descriptionCharacteristicsLocationsDimensionsAsking and answering questionsWhatWhenWhereWhoWhySignal wordsSequenceAfter, before, finally, now, then, while, etc.Restatement or synonymAlso, for example, just as, too, etc.Contrast and compareLike, similar to, etc.But, unlike, yet, etc.
21Facilitating Comprehension Teacher should preview text for:Words highlighted in text bookWords that ELL’s might have difficulty withDefinitions provided within textImportant to point out to ELLs how to find these.Give ELLs vocabulary needed for asking for help, or further explanation of text“I don’t understand. Can you explain it another way?”
22Video Becoming Bilingual: Beyond Survival English Heritage Elementary School, Woodburn, OR
23Strategy: Frontloading The process of inputting as muchinformation as possible about a readingbefore the students read on their ownin order to increase comprehension. Examples:Highlighting new vocabulary wordsMaking direct connections to students’ background knowledgePreviewing the pictures to make predictions (no reading)Previewing the text to make predictions
24“Tea Party”A pre-reading activity to help students anticipate what is next in a textTeachers write down phrases directly from text onto index cards, repeating them at least twice (you want multiple cards of same phrases).Students each get a card and walk around reading as many of their classmate’s cards as they can in 5 minutes (or so).Students group to discuss the information they’ve read, and, as a group, write a statement about what they think the story will be about, based on the information from the cards.
25Tools for Helping ELLs Grasp the Full Picture Graphic OrganizersA way to visually organize or represent conceptsExamples:timelinessemantic mapsstory mapsVenn diagramscause-effect charts
26More Tools: Thinking Maps Help break down reading and concepts into manageable parts so students interact more effectively with the text.Set up structure in “bubbles” or “double bubbles” or other configuration that makes it easy for ELL students to see the relationship between vocabulary and concepts.Allows teachers to do a comprehension check in a meaningful way and encourage students to support each other in their learning.
27Additional Tool: Sentence Starters Help students with limited English language skills “get started” on a response.Teacher models appropriate academic language structure by starting a sentence that students will finish.I think the elephant ran away because ___________When I read about _____________ it reminded me of _____________ because ______________According to _____________ , _________________
28Scaffolding Information The process of breaking down a concept into smaller, manageable parts that can then be introduced with support from the teacher. Example of scaffolding for responding to a story:For very beginning students the teacher may want them to “say” what they think while the teacher writes it down. Then the students copy the dictation.Higher level students may be given starter statements by the teacher and asked to complete them in their own words, “After Goldilocks went to sleep?.”And finally, students who are very proficient are expected to respond in writing on their own.
29The How-to of Explicit Instruction Determine the specific strategy to be taught.Make sure your text facilitates the practice of that strategy.Use a direct statement to tell your students exactly what strategy they will be learning.Model the strategy for students out-loud (a think-aloud).Give students multiple ways to practice the strategy.Deconstruct why this strategy is useful. Identify contexts for using this strategy.Repeat these steps when you change genres but use the same strategy.Allow students to become independent users of the strategy.
30Continually Monitor Comprehension Strategy: Think, Pair, ShareWhy do you think … ?Pair-up and share what you think with your partner, talk about differencesShare with the rest of the groupDon’t ask “yes” or “no” questionsMake sure students have to elaborate on their answerCross-check
31Video Reading for Meaning: Practicing Good Strategies Frank Love Elementary School, Bothell, WA
32Engaging Students in Reading Help students understand that we read for informationAsk students questionsFind answers while readingHave students ask questionsMake predictionsCompare predictions to what actually happens in the story
33Interacting with TextStruggling readers are often unaware that reading is an active process and they are engaging with the author about the text continually.This interaction happens through predicting, recognizing causality, questioning, clarifying, and responding to what is read.Help students interact with textWrite notes or reactions to textAnalyze wordsTeach word families
34Strategy: SWBS Somebody Wants But So Character in the story What’s the issue?ButWhat is the problem?SoResolution
35Story GrammarStructure of a text:CharactersSettingsProblem/IssueSolution/OutcomeExplicit instruction in story grammar is useful for ELLs.
36Cultural Differences Affecting Comprehension Story grammarVaries by cultureIn Western cultures story grammar is linear – cause & effectIn Spanish, the subject is often inferred from the verb, rather than stated explicitlyBackground knowledgei.e. Family reunionMixed agesi.e. Holidays and celebrations
37Tips Try strategies such as Think, Pair, Share Get your students to use second languageCheck comprehension constantlyTry to link academic information to ELLs personal livesTeach comprehension in all content areas.