Presentation on theme: "Reading Comprehension the ability to make meaning out of text. Students must: Be able to make personal connections with the text Understand meaning of."— Presentation transcript:
Reading Comprehension the ability to make meaning out of text. Students must: Be able to make personal connections with the text Understand meaning of vocabulary used Understand text structure Understand purpose for reading
Reading Comprehension Skills Decoding Ability to use letter-sound relationships to decipher words Fluency Automaticity, appropriate reading rate Vocabulary knowledge Breadth, and depth, of vocabulary knowledge is important, i.e., not just the number of words students know, but the depth of their understanding Background knowledge A conceptual framework, or context, into which students can fit new ideas Knowledge of comprehension strategies
Teaching Comprehension to ELLs Issue: Limited vocabulary Different background knowledge Lack of effective strategies for comprehension Solution: Explicit teaching of vocabulary Preview unfamiliar concepts/ideas before reading. Create connections to familiar concepts Teach comprehension strategies through modeling
Modeling Reading Model effective reading strategies, such as re-reading. This part didn’t make sense. I think I’ll re-read to see if I get it the second time.
Teaching Vocabulary Focus lesson on key words Teach vocabulary intentionally Explicit definitions Use cognates when possible Use “student-friendly” definitions Writing activities Classroom discussions Use context to teach words with multiple meanings
Vocabulary Strategy: Index Cards Include: Cognates Synonyms/Antonyms Picture Other concepts that help them relate to the word Help students “own” words Interacting with the vocabulary helps students understand that words aren’t just something they need to study By creating their own meaningful definitions, students are empowered to analyze new English vocabulary, and draw on their own knowledge as a resource
Preparing for Reading Establish goals for reading Anticipation guides Focus questions Making predictions “Gist” statements These are “golden nugget” statements: concise ideas about what might happen based on provided information from the text (such as key vocabulary). Focus on vocabulary concepts Preview key words & other vocabulary Explore/activate background knowledge Provide bridges between new concepts and what children already know
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Role of Native Language Strong literacy skills in native language transfer to second language The level of reading skills in native language is an important predictor of successful second language reading acquisition “The effects of primary language instruction are modest, but they are real and reliable.” — Claude Goldenberg
Transferable Literacy Skills Understanding symbolic relationships Print awareness Phonological awareness Decoding skills Comprehension strategies Concepts Cause and effect Sequencing
Comprehension Strategies for ELLs Questioning Ask and answer questions about readings Summarizing Using graphic organizers Monitoring comprehension as students read Using text characteristics to aid comprehension headings, bold type, etc. Note taking Strategies to use while reading
Cognates A word that is closely related to another word in another language. Remember If students are using cognates it is important to make the process obvious: highlight the strategy. Help students realize that using cognates is a tool for comprehension.
Using Cognate Word Walls Word walls are created by the teacher, and the class, as a way to display vocabulary that they are using. A classroom might have large posters with different letters of the alphabet at the top. The posters have cognates written on them in alphabetical order. Students can add cognates as they discover them and refer to the lists when they are reading to see if they can get the meaning that way.
Making Predictions Younger children Based on pictures Older children Graphs Illustrations
Language Functions Narrative text Vocabulary for description Adjectives Comparative language Re-telling Vocabulary for order & sequencing First, next, afterwards
Helping ELLs Achieve Academic Proficiency Finding important information in text Labeling Working with information in alternative ways Help make concepts concrete Using play dough to create a cell in biology class enables students to use academic vocabulary during the process.
Social vs. Academic Proficiency Social proficiency Language used in day- to-day interactions Variety of cues facilitate comprehension Environment, gestures, facial expressions, etc. Academic proficiency Language used in textbooks More abstract Higher order skills
Strategies for Effective Reading Relate vocabulary to cognates Use cues from illustrations Re-read Excellent strategy for building fluency and reading rate. Read aloud Practice comprehension skills through listening to oral reading. Keep reading logs
Language Strategies for Mastering Academic English Using description Characteristics Locations Dimensions Asking and answering questions What When Where Who Why Signal words Sequence After, before, finally, now, then, while, etc. Restatement or synonym Also, for example, just as, too, etc. Contrast and compare Like, similar to, etc. But, unlike, yet, etc.
Facilitating Comprehension Teacher should preview text for: Words highlighted in text book Words that ELL’s might have difficulty with Definitions provided within text Important to point out to ELLs how to find these. Give ELLs vocabulary needed for asking for help, or further explanation of text “I don’t understand. Can you explain it another way?”
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Strategy: Frontloading The process of inputting as much information as possible about a reading before the students read on their own in order to increase comprehension. Examples: Highlighting new vocabulary words Making direct connections to students’ background knowledge Previewing the pictures to make predictions (no reading) Previewing the text to make predictions
“Tea Party” A pre-reading activity to help students anticipate what is next in a text Teachers write down phrases directly from text onto index cards, repeating them at least twice (you want multiple cards of same phrases). Students each get a card and walk around reading as many of their classmate’s cards as they can in 5 minutes (or so). Students group to discuss the information they’ve read, and, as a group, write a statement about what they think the story will be about, based on the information from the cards.
Tools for Helping ELLs Grasp the Full Picture Graphic Organizers A way to visually organize or represent concepts Examples: timelines semantic maps story maps Venn diagrams cause-effect charts
More Tools: Thinking Maps Help break down reading and concepts into manageable parts so students interact more effectively with the text. Set up structure in “bubbles” or “double bubbles” or other configuration that makes it easy for ELL students to see the relationship between vocabulary and concepts. Allows teachers to do a comprehension check in a meaningful way and encourage students to support each other in their learning.
Additional Tool: Sentence Starters Help students with limited English language skills “get started” on a response. Teacher models appropriate academic language structure by starting a sentence that students will finish. I think the elephant ran away because ___________ When I read about _____________ it reminded me of _____________ because ______________ According to _____________, _________________
Scaffolding Information The process of breaking down a concept into smaller, manageable parts that can then be introduced with support from the teacher. Example of scaffolding for responding to a story: For very beginning students the teacher may want them to “say” what they think while the teacher writes it down. Then the students copy the dictation. Higher level students may be given starter statements by the teacher and asked to complete them in their own words, “After Goldilocks went to sleep?.” And finally, students who are very proficient are expected to respond in writing on their own.
The How-to of Explicit Instruction 1.Determine the specific strategy to be taught. 2.Make sure your text facilitates the practice of that strategy. 3.Use a direct statement to tell your students exactly what strategy they will be learning. 4.Model the strategy for students out-loud (a think-aloud). 5.Give students multiple ways to practice the strategy. 6.Deconstruct why this strategy is useful. Identify contexts for using this strategy. 7.Repeat these steps when you change genres but use the same strategy. 8.Allow students to become independent users of the strategy.
Continually Monitor Comprehension Strategy: Think, Pair, Share Why do you think … ? Pair-up and share what you think with your partner, talk about differences Share with the rest of the group Don’t ask “yes” or “no” questions Make sure students have to elaborate on their answer Cross-check
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Engaging Students in Reading Help students understand that we read for information Ask students questions Find answers while reading Have students ask questions Make predictions Compare predictions to what actually happens in the story
Interacting with Text Struggling readers are often unaware that reading is an active process and they are engaging with the author about the text continually. This interaction happens through predicting, recognizing causality, questioning, clarifying, and responding to what is read. Help students interact with text Write notes or reactions to text Analyze words Teach word families
Strategy: SWBS Somebody Character in the story Wants What’s the issue? But What is the problem? So Resolution
Story Grammar Structure of a text: Characters Settings Problem/Issue Solution/Outcome Explicit instruction in story grammar is useful for ELLs.
Cultural Differences Affecting Comprehension Story grammar Varies by culture In Western cultures story grammar is linear – cause & effect In Spanish, the subject is often inferred from the verb, rather than stated explicitly Background knowledge i.e. Family reunion Mixed ages i.e. Holidays and celebrations
Tips Try strategies such as Think, Pair, Share Get your students to use second language Check comprehension constantly Try to link academic information to ELLs personal lives Teach comprehension in all content areas.