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**PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4 Non-Uniform Bending (Theory and Experiment)**

I-Shape Girder PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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Non-Uniform Bending If the beam is loaded at its mid-point, the depression produced will not form an arc of a circle. This type of bending is called non-uniform bending. PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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Consider a uniform beam (or rod or bar) AB of length l arranged horizontally on two knife edges K1 and K2 near the ends A and B as shown in Figure. W/2 W/2 E A B K1 K2 W PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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**A weight W is applied at the midpoint E of the beam. **

The reaction at each knife edge is equal to W/2 in the upward direction and ‘y’ is the depression at the midpoint E. The bent beam is considered to be equivalent to two single inverted cantilevers, fixed at E each of length and each loaded at K1 and K2 with a weight PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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**In the case of a cantilever of length l and load W, the depression = **

Hence, for cantilever of length and load , the depression is y= PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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**If the beam is a rectangular, Ig = , **

or If M is the mass, the corresponding weight W is W = Mg If the beam is a rectangular, Ig = , where b is the breadth and d is the thickness of the beam. PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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Hence, or The value of young’s modulus, Y can be determined by the above equation. PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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Experiment The given beam AB of rectangular cross section is arranged horizontally on two knife edges K1 and K2 near the ends A and B as shown in Figure A B K2 K1 PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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**A microscope is focused on the tip of the pin. **

A weight hanger is suspended and a pin is fixed vertically at mid-point . A microscope is focused on the tip of the pin. The initial reading on the vertical scale of the microscope is taken. A suitable mass M is added to the hanger. PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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**The cross wire is adjusted to coincide with the tip of the pin.**

The beam is depressed. The cross wire is adjusted to coincide with the tip of the pin. The reading of the microscope is noted. The depression corresponding to the mass M is found. PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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**The corresponding readings are tabulated. **

The experiment is repeated by increasing and decreasing the mass step by step. The corresponding readings are tabulated. The average value of depression, y is found from the observations. PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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**Microscope readings for depression**

Load in Kg Microscope readings for depression Mean depression,y for a load of M Load increasing cm decreasing Mean cm W W+50 gms W+100 gms W+150 gms W+200 gms W+250 gms PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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**The breadth b, the thickness d and length l of the beam are measured**

The breadth b, the thickness d and length l of the beam are measured. The value of Y for the material of the beam is found by the relation. PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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I Shape Girder A girder is a metallic beam supported at its two ends by pillars or on opposite walls. It should be so designed that it should not bend too much or break under its own weight. PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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The depression (y) at the center of a beam of length l, breadth b and thickness d under a load Mg at its mid-point is given as PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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**The length should be as small as possible.**

Hence to reduce the bending for a given load,Young’s modulus Y of the material of the beam should be large, b and d of the beam must also be large. The length should be as small as possible. Since depression y is inversely proportional to d3, the depression can be reduced more effectively by increasing the thickness d rather than increasing the breadth b of the beam. PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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But on increasing the thickness, unless the load is at the centre, the beam may bend This is called buckling of the beam. b d (a) Buckling PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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**To prevent buckling, a large load-bearing surface is required. **

Hence, the beam is designed to have a large thickness to minimize bending and a large load bearing surface to prevent buckling. The shape which satisfies these conditions is I. So it is called the I section of the beam or girder. Extra material (b) I shape Removed PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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**Features of I shape girder**

As the layers of the beam at the upper and bottom are subjected to maximum stress, more material must be needed there to withstand the strain. As the stress around the neutral layer is small, material in these regions can be removed without loss of efficiency. This would save economy (cost of material of the girder). PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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**Iron girders used in buildings can be easily made of I-section.**

This type of cross-section provides a high bending moment and a lot of material is saved. PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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THANK YOU THANK YOU PH0101 UNIT 1 LECTURE 4

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