Presentation on theme: "Anthropometry An Introduction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Anthropometry An Introduction Lecture ModuleFK Unsri2008
2 “Stretch of the Measuring” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1779 Stadiometer
3 What is Anthropometry? Greek Anthro- : man-pometry: measurementsLiteral meaning: “measurement of humans”The study of measurements or proportions of the human body according to sex, age, etc. for identification purposesDimensions of bones, muscles, and adipose (fat) tissues
4 History of Anthropometry 1883- Alphonse Bertillon: system of identification depending on the unchanging character of certain measurements of parts of the human body1884: 241 multiple offenders were identified“Bertillonage”- first adapted by the French police1887: introduced in the United States by Major McClaughry, the translator of Bertillon's book, when he was the warden of the Illinois State Penitentiary at Joliet.
6 History of Anthropometry 1888: Francis Galton starts research on “Finger Prints” to further anthropometry1892: Francis Galton publishes Finger Prints1894: England adopted the system.1903: Will West & William West
7 Galton’s Discovery because of Anthropometry? “My attention was first drawn to the ridges in 1888 when preparing a lecture on Personal Identification for the Royal Institution, which had for its principal object an account of the anthropometric method of Bertillon, then newly introduced into the prison administration of France. Wishing to treat the subject generally, and having a vague knowledge of the value sometimes assigned to finger marks, I made inquiries, and was surprised to find, both how much had been done, and how much there remained to do, before establishing their theoretical value and practical utility.Enough was then seen to show that the subject was of real importance, and I resolved to investigate it; all the more so, as the modern processes of photographic printing would enable the evidence of such results as might be arrived at, to be presented to the reader on an enlarged and easily legible form, and in a trustworthy shape. Those that are put forward in the following pages, admit of considerable extension and improvement, and it is only the fact that an account of them seems useful, which causes me to delay no further before submitting what has thus far been attained, to the criticism of others.”Excerpt from Galton’s Finger Prints
8 Applications of Anthropometry Identification of repeated criminalsCesare Lombroso's Criminal Anthropology (1895): “murderers have prominent jaws and pickpockets have long hands and scanty beards”.Eugene Vidocq: identification of criminals by facial characteristicsPrevention of impersonationDifferentiation between the racesEugenics in EuropeAryans from Jews: The Bureau for Enlightenment on Population Policy and Racial Welfare recommended the classification of Aryans and non-Aryans on the basis of measurements of the skull and other physical features, “craniometric” certification, required by law. The consequences for not meeting requirements included denial of permission to marry or work, and for many it meant the death campsIntelligence tests became associated with Anthropometry
9 Debate over Anthropometry General Problems with Anthropometry:Cost and error of the instruments usedEducation needed to be able to take the measurementsError in calculation and measurementsSlowWill West Case
10 Body Identification using Anthropometry Bertillon used 5 basic measurements:head lengthhead breadthlength of middle fingerLength of left footlength from the elbow to the extremity of the middle fingerToday that list is more extensive:GenderHeightWeightAgeBicep circumference, buttock depth, chest breadth, elbow circumference, eye height, forearm to hand, ear breadth, head circumference, head length, hip breadth sitting, hip breadth standing, sitting height, waist depth, wrist breadth, wrist circumference to name a few…there are currently 107 measurements
11 Anthropometric Measuring Tools AnthropometerGoniometerTapeMedical scaleSliding Calipers: large and smallSpreading Caliper
12 Anthropometric Measuring Techniques WeightStaturePosture:StandingFrankfortSittingArm SpanHead LengthHead BreadthEar-to-Head HeightNasal LengthNasal BreadthSkeletal Index = Sitting Height x 100/StatureCephalic Index = Head Breadth x 100/Head LengthNasal Index = Nasal Breadth x 100/Nasal LengthSpan/Stature Index = Arm Span x 100/ StatureCranial Capacity
18 Anthropometry Today Biometrics Nutrition and wellness Ergonomics Weight TrainingErgonomicsdynamic anthropometry: Measurements taken on and around the figure when it is in any position other than the fixed ones.Everyday lifeEvolutionary SignificanceChanges in humans overtimeMonitor growth in childrenCranial Anthropometry
19 Biometricsthe automatic identification of a person based on his/her physiological or behavioral characteristicsVerification vs. identificationVerification: Am I whom I claim I am? involves confirming or denying a person's claimed identityIdentification: Who am I?
20 Biometrics Applications Forensics: criminal identification and prison securityPrevention of unauthorized access to ATMs, cellular phones, smart cards, desktop PCs, workstations, and computer networksAutomobiles: replace keys with key-less entry and key-less ignitionBorder control and national ID cards
21 Biometrics Programs Fingerprint Identification Hand Geometry: geometric shape of the hand for authenticating a user's identityFace Location: an arbitrary black and white, still image, find the location and size of every human faceMultibiometrics: integrates face recognition, fingerprint verification, and speaker verification in making a personal identification
24 Biometrics in Use Heathrow Airport- Iris BenGurion Airport: Hand GeometryFacePass: Face VerificationGrocery Store Payment: FingerprintUS- Visit ProgramINSPASS: Hand Geometry
25 Cranial Anthropometry Also known as Craniometrymeasurement of the skull and face3 ways to categorize the skulldolichocephalic: long and thinbrachycephalic: short and broadmesocephalic: intermediate length and breadth
26 Terminology Frankfort Horizontal (FH) A plane passing through three points of the right and left porion and the left orbitale.First proposed at the Craniometric Congress held in Munich, Germany, 1877.An orientation of skull in a consistent and reproducible position.Comparisons: natural head position; horizontal visual axis; and horizontal plane.
28 Cranial Anthropometry: 16 Facial Zones en (endocanthion)eu (eurion)ex (exocanthion)ft (frontotemporale)fz (frontozygomaticus)g (glabella)gn (gnathion)obi (otobasion inferius)op (opisthocranion)po (porion)
29 Cranial Anthropometry: 16 Facial Zones (cont.) n (nasion)sn (subnasale)t (tragion)tr (trichion)v (vertex)zy (zygion)
30 Cranial Anthropometry Facial Zones Maximal cranial breadthMaximal cranial length
31 TerminologyBasion: the midpoint of the anterior margin of the foramen magnum.Gnathion: the most anterior and lowest median point on the border of the mandible.Glabella: the most forward projecting point in the midline of the forehead at the level of the supra-orbital ridges and above the nasofrontal suture.Opisthocranion: the most posterior point on the skull not on the external occipital protuberance. It is the posterior end point of maximum cranial length measured from glabella. It is determined instrumentally.Euryon: the two points on the opposite sides of the skull that form termini of the lines of greatest breadth. The two points are determined instrumentally.Zygion: the most lateral point of the zygomatic arch. It is determined instrumentally.Orbitale: the lowest point in the margin of the orbit; one of the points used in defining Frankfort Horizontal.
32 TerminologyPorion: the uppermost lateral point in the margin of the external auditory meatus. The right and left porion with the left orbitale define the Frankfort HorizontalMastoidale: the lowest point of the mastoid processGonion: the midpoint of the angel of the mandible between body and ramus.Bregma: the intersection of the coronal and sagittal sutures in the midline.Lambda: the intersection of the sagittal and lambdoidal sutures in the midline.Nasion: the intersection of the nasofrontal suture with the midsagittal plane. Nasion is the uppermost landmark for the measure of facial height.Menton: the lowest median point of the chin.Pogonion: the most anterior point in the midline of the chin.
33 3- D Anthropometry3D anthropometry, the measure of humans, can be greatly aided by the use of accurate digital humans. We'll take a look at how to create these types of accurate digital humans and how they can be used for the measurement of entire populationsPrograms:CyberwareDigiSizeCySliceEar Impression 3-D ScannerSizeUSA: 3D measurement system, a body scanner feeding data into measurement extraction software.CAESAR: generate a database of human physical dimensions for men and women of various weights, between the ages of 18 and 65Virtual Models: virtually try on clothes, makeup etc.