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Project Management: A Managerial Approach 4/e By Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel, Jr. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Presentation prepared.

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Presentation on theme: "Project Management: A Managerial Approach 4/e By Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel, Jr. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Presentation prepared."— Presentation transcript:

1 Project Management: A Managerial Approach 4/e By Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel, Jr. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Presentation prepared by RTBM WebGroup

2 Project Management A Managerial Approach Chapter 3 The Project Manager

3 Project Management and the Project Manager zThe Functional Manager vs. The Project Manager yFunctional managers are usually specialists, analytically oriented and they know the details of each operation for which they are responsible yProject managers must be generalists that can oversee many functional areas and have the ability to put the pieces of a task together to form a coherent whole Chapter 3-1

4 Project Management and the Project Manager zThe Functional Manager Chapter 3-2

5 Project Management and the Project Manager zThe Functional Manager yAnalytical Approach yDirect, technical supervisor zThe Project Manager ySystems Approach yFacilitator and generalist Chapter 3-3

6 Project Management and the Project Manager zThe Project Manager Chapter 3-4

7 Project Management and the Project Manager zThree major questions face the project manager: y1. What needs to be done? y2. When must it be done? y3. How are the resources required to do this job going to be obtained? zProject manager is responsible for organizing, staffing, budgeting, directing, planning, and controlling the project. Chapter 3-5

8 Responsibilities of a Project Manager zResponsibility to the Parent Organization zResponsibility to the Client zResponsibility to the Team Members zAbove all, the Project Manager must never allow senior management to be surprised Chapter 3-6

9 Responsibilities to the Parent Organization zConservation of resources zTimely and accurate project communications zCareful, competent management of the project zProtect the firm from high risk zAccurate reporting of project status with regard to budget and schedule Chapter 3-7

10 Responsibilities of the Project Manager zResponsibility to the Client yPreserve integrity of project and client yResolve conflict among interested parties yEnsure performance, budgets, and deadlines are met zResponsibility to project team members yFairness, respect, honesty yConcern for members’ future after project Chapter 3-8

11 Project Management Career Paths zMost Project Managers get their training in one or more of three ways: yOn-the-job yProject management seminars and workshops yActive participation in the programs of the local chapters of the Project Management Institute yFormal education in degreed programs Chapter 3-9

12 Importance of Project Management Experience zExperience as a project manager serves to teach the importance of: yAn organized plan for reaching an objective yNegotiation with one’s co-workers yFollow through ySensitivity to the political realities of organizational life zThe career path often starts with participation in small projects, and later in larger projects, until the person is given control over small, then larger projects Chapter 3-10

13 Special Demands on the Project Manager zA number of demands are critical to the management of projects: yAcquiring adequate resources yAcquiring and motivating personnel yDealing with obstacles yMaking project goal trade offs yDealing with failure and the risk and fear of failure yMaintaining breadth of communication yNegotiation Chapter 3-11

14 Acquiring Adequate Resources zResources initially budgeted for projects are frequently insufficient ySometimes resource trade-offs are required ySubcontracting is an option yProject and functional managers perceive availability of resources to be strictly limited yCompetition for resources often turns into “win- lose” propositions between project and functional managers Chapter 3-12

15 Acquiring and Motivating Personnel zA major problem for the project manager is that most people required for a project must be “borrowed” yAt times, functional managers may become jealous if they perceive a project as more glamorous than their own functional area yTypically, the functional manager retains control of personnel evaluation, salary, and promotion for those people lent out to projects yBecause the functional manager controls pay and promotion, the project manager cannot promise much beyond the challenge of the work itself Chapter 3-13

16 Acquiring and Motivating Personnel zCharacteristics of effective team members: yHigh quality technical skills yPolitical sensitivity yStrong problem orientation yStrong goal orientation yHigh self-esteem Chapter 3-14

17 Dealing with Obstacles zOne characteristic of any project is its uniqueness and with that come a series of crises: yAt the inception of a project, the “fires” tend to be associated with resources yAs a project nears completion, obstacles tend to be clustered around two issues: x1. Last minute schedule and technical changes x2. Uncertainty surrounding what happens to members of the project team when the project is completed Chapter 3-15

18 Making Project Goal Trade-offs zThe project manager must make trade offs between the project goals of cost, time and performance yDuring the design or formation stage of the project life cycle, there is no significant difference in the importance project managers place on the three goals ySchedule is the primary goal during the build up stage, being more important than performance, which is in turn significantly more important than cost yDuring the final stage, phaseout, performance is significantly more important than cost Chapter 3-16

19 Making Project Goal Trade-offs zRelative importance of project objectives for each stage of the project life cycle: Chapter 3-17

20 Failure and the Risk of Fear and Failure zIt is difficult, at times, to distinguish between project failure, partial failure, and success. yWhat appears to be a failure at one point in the life of a project may look like a success at another yBy dividing all projects into two general categories, interesting differences in the nature and timing of perceived difficulties can be found Chapter 3-18

21 Failure and the Risk of Fear and Failure zTwo general types of projects: yType 1 - these projects are generally well- understood, routine construction projects xAppear simple at the beginning of the project xRarely fail because they are late or over budget, though commonly are both xThey fail because they are not organized to handle unexpected crises and deviations from the plan xThese projects often lack the appropriate technical expertise to handle such crises Chapter 3-19

22 Failure and the Risk of Fear and Failure yType 2 - these are not well understood, and there may be considerable uncertainty about specifically what must be done xMany difficulties early in the life of the project xOften considered planning problems xMost of these problems result from a failure to define the mission carefully xOften fail to get the client’s acceptance on the project mission Chapter 3-20

23 Breadth of Communication zMost of the project manager’s time is spent communicating with the many groups interested in the project yConsiderable time must be spent selling, reselling, and explaining the project yInterested parties include: xTop management xFunctional departments xClients xMembers of the project team Chapter 3-21

24 Breadth of Communication zTo effectively deal with the demands, a project manager must understand and deal with certain fundamental issues: yMust understand why the project exists yCritical to have the support of top management yBuild and maintain a solid information network yMust be flexible in many ways, with as many people, and about as many activities as possible throughout the life of the project Chapter 3-22

25 Selecting the Project Manager zSome of the most popular attributes, skills, and qualities that have been sought in project managers are: yStrong technical background yHard-nosed manager yA mature individual ySomeone who is currently available ySomeone on good terms with senior executives yA person who can keep the project team happy yOne who has worked in several different departments yA person who can walk on (or part) the waters Chapter 3-23

26 Selecting the Project Manager zFour major categories of skills that are required for the project manager and serve as the key criteria for selection: yCredibility ySensitivity yLeadership and management style yAbility to handle stress Chapter 3-24

27 Credibility zThe project manager needs two kinds of credibility: yTechnical credibility - perceived by the client, senior executives, the functional departments, and the project team as possessing sufficient technical knowledge to direct the project yAdministrative credibility - keeping the project on schedule and within costs and making sure reports are accurate and timely. Must also make sure the project team has material, equipment, and labor when needed. Chapter 3-25

28 Sensitivity zThere are several ways for project managers to display sensitivity: yUnderstanding the organization’s political structure ySense interpersonal conflict on the project team or between team members and outsiders yDoes not avoid conflict, but confronts it and deals with it before it escalates yKeeps team members “cool” ySensitive set of technical sensors - ability to sense when team members may try to “sweep things under the rug” Chapter 3-26

29 Leadership and Management Style zLeadership has been defined as: “interpersonal influence, exercised in situation and directed through the communication process, toward the attainment of a specified goal or goals.” zOther attributes may include: yenthusiasm yoptimism yenergy ytenacity ycourage ypersonal maturity Chapter 3-27

30 Ethical Issues zA project manager must also have a strong sense of ethics. Some common ethical missteps are listed below: y“wired” bids and contracts (the winner has been predetermined) y“buy-in” (bidding low with the intention of cutting corners or forcing subsequent contract changes) y“kickbacks” y“covering” for team members (group cohesiveness) ytaking “shortcuts” (to meet deadlines or budgets) yusing marginal (substandard) materials ycompromising on safety yviolating standards yconsultant (e.g., auditors) loyalties (to employer or to client or to public) Chapter 3-28

31 Ability to Handle Stress zFour major causes of stress associated with the management of projects: y1. Never developing a consistent set of procedures and techniques with which to manage their work y2. Many project managers have “too much on their plates” y3. Some project managers have a high need to achieve that is consistently frustrated y4. The parent organization is in the middle of major change Chapter 3-29

32 Impact of Institutional Environments zA culture’s institutions are a part of the environment for every project zIn general systems theory, the environment of a system is defined as everything outside the system that receives outputs from it or delivers inputs to it Chapter 3-30

33 Impact of Institutional Environments zProject managers must consider the following environments and how they may impact a project: ySocioeconomic environment yLegal environment yThe business cycle as an environment yTechnological environment Chapter 3-31

34 Multicultural Communications and Managerial Behavior zThe importance of language cannot be overstated yCommunication cannot be separated from the communicator yManagerial and personal behaviors of the project manager must be considered in the communication process xStructure and style of communications xManagerial and personal behavior Chapter 3-32

35 Multicultural Communications and Managerial Behavior zStructure and Style of Communications: yIn the United States, delegation is a preferred managerial style yIn cultures where authority is highly centralized, it becomes the project manager’s responsibility to seek out information yThe manager of an international project cannot count on being voluntarily informed of problems and potential problems by his or her subordinates Chapter 3-33

36 Multicultural Communications and Managerial Behavior zManagerial and Personal Behavior yIn a society with highly structured social classes, it is difficult to practice participative management yThere is an assumption that the more educated, higher-class manager’s authority will be denigrated by using a participative style yThe more structured a country’s social system, the less direct managerial communication tends to be Chapter 3-34

37 Summary zThe project manager has responsibilities to the organization, the project, and to the project team zThere are many career paths available to an experienced project manager zTypically, a project manager faces unique demands relating to resources, personnel, communication and negotiation Chapter 3-35

38 Summary zTwo factors critical to the success of a project are top management support and the existence of a problem orientation within the team members zCompared to a functional manager, a project manager is a generalist rather than a specialist, a synthesizer rather than an analyst, and a facilitator rather than a supervisor Chapter 3-36

39 Summary zThere are common characteristics of effective project team members: technical skills, political sensitivity, problem orientation, and high self esteem zThe best person to select as the project manager is the one who will get the job done zValuable skills for the project manager are: credibility, political sensitivity, and leadership Chapter 3-37

40 Summary zCultural elements refer to the way of life for any group of people including technology, institutions, language, and art zThe project environment includes: economic, political, legal, and sociotechnical aspects zCultural issues include: the group’s perception of time and the manner of staffing projects zLanguage is a particularly critical aspect of culture for the project Chapter 3-38

41 The Project Manager Questions? Chapter 3-39

42 The Project Manager Picture Files

43 The Project Manager Figure 3-1

44 The Project Manager Figure 3-2

45 The Project Manager Table Files

46 The Project Manager






52 Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

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