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Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS Irwin/McGraw-Hill C H A P T E R E I G H T E E.

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Presentation on theme: "Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS Irwin/McGraw-Hill C H A P T E R E I G H T E E."— Presentation transcript:

1 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS Irwin/McGraw-Hill C H A P T E R E I G H T E E N RETAILING Walton’s.5 &.10

2 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS AFTER READING THIS CHAPTER YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: Identify retailers in terms of the utilities they provide. Explain the alternative ways to classify retail outlets. Understand the many methods of non-store retailing. Classify retailers in terms of the retail positioning matrix. Develop retailing mix strategies over the life cycle of a retail store.

3 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-AA Lowest Prices on Earth!! Buy.com is an online retail business that sells consumer products at or below cost. The company’s goal is to become the name all buyers associate with low price. How does Buy.com make up the deficit? By selling advertising space on its Web site. Presently, the company is growing at a rate that will make it the fastest growing company in U.S. history. Can a business survive with a strategy based on only having the lowest price?

4 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-BB Definition of Retailing Retailing includes.... all activities involved in selling, renting, and providing goods and services to ultimate customers for personal, family or household use. In the channel of distribution, retailing is where the customer meets the product. It is through retailing that exchange occurs. all activities involved in selling, renting, and providing goods and services to ultimate customers for personal, family or household use. In the channel of distribution, retailing is where the customer meets the product. It is through retailing that exchange occurs.

5 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-CC Retailing Creates Value Retailing’s economic value is represented by: 1.People employed in retailing, and 2.The total amount of money exchanged in retail sales. Utilities provided by retailers create value for customers. Time, place, possession, and form utilities are offered by most retailers.

6 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-1 Which Company Best Represents Which Utilities? Wells Fargo Saturn Levi Strauss Toys “ R ” Us One of the best-run banks in the United States, Wells Fargo is intensifying it’s drive to reach retail customers by opening minibanks in supermarkets. This new form of banking is designed to complement ATMs, which already dispense 75% of the bank’s cash. Saturn dealers have adopted a one-price strategy that eliminates the need for negotiating. Instead, all customers are offered the same price. Test drives, financing, trade-ins, and leasing are all offered to encourage customers to purchase a Saturn. Levi Strauss & Co. now offers the Levi’s Original Spin program which allows customers to create their own jeans by selecting from three models, five leg types, two flys, and many color and fabric options. The jeans are delivered in 2 to 3 weeks for $55. A distinctive toy store with a backwards R, this company is what every kid dreams about. Walking into a Toys “R” Us store is like living under a Christmas tree. Unlike most stores, which reduce their space allotted to toys after the holiday season, a huge selection of toys is always available at Toys “R” Us. Can you match them? TimePlacePossessionForm _____ _____ _____ _____

7 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-A The Largest Retailers Category Retailer(s) Sales ($, in billions ) Department stores Sears J C Penney Sears J C Penney Apparel Limited TJX Limited TJX Consumer Electronics Circuit City Best Buy Circuit City Best Buy Drug and Discount Wal-Mart Kmart Wal-Mart Kmart Home Improvement Home Depot Lowe’s Home Depot Lowe’s Home Shopping Service Merchandise Fingerhut Service Merchandise Fingerhut Specialty Retailers Costco Toys R Us Costco Toys R Us

8 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-DD Global Economic Impact of Retailing Four of the 25 largest businesses in the U.S. are retailers. In 1997, Wal-Mart’s $119 billion in sales surpassed the gross domestic product of Finland for the same year. Sears, Wal-Mart, Kmart, and JCPenny together employ more than 1.6 million people. Wal-Mart has 603 stores outside the U.S., including joint ventures in China and Korea.

9 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS Sales ($billions) Automotive dealers Food stores General merchandise group Eating and drinking places Gasoline service stations Building material, hardware, etc. Furniture and home furnishings stores Apparel and accessory stores Drug and proprietary stores Liquor stores Other PP18-2 Retail Sales By Type of Business

10 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-EE Concept Check 1.When Levi Strauss makes jeans cut to a customer’s exact preferences and measurements, what utility is provided? 2.Two measures of the importance of retailing in the global economy are ________ and ________.

11 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-FF Classifying Retail Outlets Retail outlets can be classified in several ways: -- Form of ownership. Who owns the outlet. -- Level of service. The degree of service provided to the customer. -- Merchandise line. How many different types of products a store carries and in what assortment.

12 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS Form of ownershipIndependent retailer Corporate chain Contractual system Retailer-sponsored cooperative Wholesaler-sponsored voluntary chain Franchise Level of serviceSelf-service Limited service Full-service Merchandise lineDepth Single line Limited line Breadth General merchandise Scrambled merchandise PP18-3 Classifying retail outlets METHOD OF CLASSIFICATION DESCRIPTION OF RETAIL OUTLET

13 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-4 The possibilities and costs of franchising FRANCHISE TYPE OF BUSINESS TOTAL START- UP COSTS NUMBER OF FRANCHISES McDonald’sFast-food restaurant$385,000-$520,00019,500 Merry MaidsCleaning Service$27,500-$40, Jiffy LubeAutomobile fluid service$208,000-$229, Mail Boxes Etc.Postal Services$55,000-$75,000 2,953 Duds ’N SudsLaundry and snack bar$60, Radio ShackElectronic accessories$67,500 1,934 BarbizonSchool of Modeling$69,500-$124,000 65

14 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-GG Depth and Breadth of Product Line Depth of product line means that the store carries a large assortment of each item, such as shoe stores that offer running shoes, dress shoes, and children’s shoes. Breadth of product line refers to the variety of different items a store carries. -- scrambled merchandising refers to retailers that offer several unrelated product lines in a single store. -- hypermarkets are very large retail outlets that have the goal of offering customers everything at one outlet. -- Supercenters are retailers that combine a typical merchandise store with a grocery store.

15 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-5 Breadth vs. Depth of Merchandise Lines Nike running shoes Florsheim dress shoes Top Sider boat shoes Adidas tennis shoes Amana refrigerator Sony TV sets JVC videocassette recorders General Electric dishwashers Sharp microwave ovens Classical Rock Jazz Country Western Suits Ties Jackets Overcoats Socks Shirts Depth: Number of items within each product line Breadth: Number of different product lines Shoes Appliances CDsMen’s Clothing

16 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-6 Differences in Store Concepts DISCOUNT STORE SUPERCENTER HYPERMARKET Average size (in square feet) Number of employees Annual Sales ($ millions per store) Gross margin Number of items stocked 70, $10-$20 18%-19% 60,000-80, , $20-$50 15%-16% 100, , $75-$100 7%-8% 60,000-70,000

17 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-HH Concept Check 1.Centralized decision-making and purchasing are an advantage of ________ ownership. 2.What are some examples of new forms of self-service retailers? 3.Would a shop for big men’s clothes carrying pants in sizes 40 to 60 have a broad or deep product line?

18 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-7 Forms of Non-store Retailing Automatic vending Direct mail and catalogs Television home shopping On-line retailing Tele- marketing Direct selling High Low Active customer involvement Active retailer involvementLowHigh

19 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-II Automatic Vending Nonstore retailing that makes it possible to serve customers where stores cannot. Maintenance and operating costs are high. Small convenience products are available in vending machines. Of the 3 million vending machines now in use, 1.8 million are soft drink machines.

20 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-JJ Direct Mail & Catalogs Marketing efficiency is improved through segmentation and targeting. Customer value is enhance by providing a fast and convenient means of making a purchase. In 1998 Americans increased their catalog spending to $87 billion. A typical household receives 50 catalogs each year.

21 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-KK Television Home Shopping TV home shopping is possible when consumers watch a shopping channel on which products are displayed; orders are placed over the telephone. Two popular home shopping programs reach 60 million homes and have combined sales of $2 billion. TV home shopping programs traditionally attract year old females. Limitations of TV shopping have been the lack of buyer-seller interaction and the inability of consumers to control the items they see.

22 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-LL Online Retailing Online retailing allows consumers to search for, evaluate, and order products through the Internet. The advantages of online retailing are: –ability to comparison shop –privacy –variety Forecasts suggest that current annual sales of $10 billion could reach $100 billion in just a few years.

23 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-MM Telemarketing Telemarketing involves using the telephone to interact with and sell directly to consumers. According to the American Telemarketing Association, telemarketing sales exceed $500 billion. As the use of telemarketing grows, consumer privacy has become a topic of discussion among consumers, Congress, the Federal Trade Commission, and businesses.

24 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-NN Direct Selling Direct selling involves direct sales of goods and services to consumers through personal interactions and demonstrations in their home or office. Industry sales are more than $16 billion, but are declining in the U.S. as retail chains begin to carry similar products at discount prices, and the increasing number of dual-career households reduces the number of potential buyers at home. Many direct selling retailers are expanding into international markets to offset the decline in domestic sales.

25 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-OO Concept Check 1.Successful catalog retailers often send ________ catalogs to ________ markets identified in their databases. 2.How are retailers increasing consumer interest and involvement in online retailing? 3.Where are direct-selling retail sales growing? Why?

26 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-PP Retail Positioning Matrix The retail positioning matrix positions retail outlets on two dimensions: breadth of product line and value added. Breadth of product line is the range of products sold through each outlet. Value added includes such elements as location, product reliability, and/or prestige.

27 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-8 Retail Positioning Matrix PP18-8 Retail Positioning Matrix Kmart Just for FeetTiffany Bloomingdale’s Broad Narrow Value added LowHigh Breadth of product line

28 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-QQ Key to Retail Positioning For a store to be successfully positioned, it must have an identity which has some advantages over competitors, and at the same time are recognized and valued by consumers.

29 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-RR The Retailing Mix The retailing mix includes: 1.Goods and services 2.Physical distribution 3.Communications tactics chosen by a store.

30 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-9 The Retailing Mix PP18-9 The Retailing Mix Consumers Store location Distribution centers Warehousing Transportation Handling goods Packing Variety and assortment Sales assistance Customer services Pricing Credit Guarantees and exchanges Alterations and adjustments Store image and atmosphere Parking Delivery Personal selling Advertising Window displays Internal displays Public relations Store layout Catalogs Telephone sales

31 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS Types of RetailersKeys to Success High Value-added/ Broad Line (Bloomingdales) Creative merchandising image-- excitement, leader High price/high margin Store Ambiance Low Value-added/ broad line (Kmart) Economies of scale--volume Image--”good guys”, conveniences Low price/low margin Low or self-service Efficiency of operations High Value-added/ narrow line (Tiffany) Unique of high quality products Image--exclusive specialty High price/high margin Personal service/advice Expensive presentation Low Value-added narrow line (Just for Feet) Specialty mass merchandising Image--value conscious, consistent Low price, loss leaders Little or self-service “Cookie-cutter” stores PP18-F Implications of the Retail Positioning Mix PP18-F Implications of the Retail Positioning Mix

32 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-SSa Retail Pricing Terminology Markup refers to how much should be added to the cost the retailer paid for the product to reach a final selling price. Original markup is the difference between the retailer’s original cost and initial selling price. The maintained markup is the difference between the final selling price and retailer cost and is also the gross margin.

33 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-SSb Retail Pricing Terminology Markdown occurs when the product does not sell at the original price and an adjustment is necessary. Shrinkage is theft of merchandise by customers and employees. Off-price retailing involves selling brand name merchandise at lower than regular prices. The difference between the off-price retailer and a discount store is that off-price merchandise is bought by the retailer from manufacturers excess inventory at prices below wholesale prices.

34 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-TT Store Location Central business district regional shopping centers community shopping centers strip location power center Types of Store Locations

35 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-UU Concept Check 1.What are the two dimensions of the retail positioning matrix? 2.How does original markup differ from maintained markup? 3.A huge shopping strip with multiple anchor stores is a ________ center.

36 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS Passage of time As time passes, outlet adds services As more time passes, outlet adds still more services 4.New form of outlet enters retailing environment with characteristics of outlet in Box 1 1.Outlet starts with: Low prices Low margins Low status 1.Outlet starts with: Low prices Low margins Low status 3.Outlet now has: Still higher prices Still higher margins Still higher status 3.Outlet now has: Still higher prices Still higher margins Still higher status 2.Outlet now has: Higher prices Higher margins Higher status 2.Outlet now has: Higher prices Higher margins Higher status PP18-10 The Wheel of Retailing

37 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-11 The Retail Life Cycle Market share or profit Early growth Accelerated development MaturityDecline Value-retail stores On-line retailers Single-price stores Warehouse clubs Fast food outlets Convenience stores Supermarkets Department stores Catalog Retailers Malls (?) General store Factory outlet stores Profit Market share Single-brand stores

38 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-VV Future Changes in Retailing Impact of Technology Changing Shopping Behavior Importance of Brands

39 Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 MARKETING, 6/e BERKOWITZ KERIN HARTLEY RUDELIUS PP18-WW Concept Check 1.According to the wheel of retailing, when a new retail form appears, how would you characterize it’s image? 2.Market share is usually fought out before the ________ stage of the retail life cycle. 3.What is a smart card?


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