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1 Tree Traversal Section 9.3 Longin Jan Latecki Temple University Based on slides by Paul Tymann, Andrew Watkins, and J. van Helden

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2 Tree Anatomy R S YZ X T UVW Root Internal Node Leaf Subtree Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Child of X Parent of Z and Y The children of a node are, themselves, trees, called subtrees.

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3 Tree Traversals One of the most common operations performed on trees, are a tree traversals A traversal starts at the root of the tree and visits every node in the tree exactly once –visit means to process the data in the node Traversals are either depth-first or breadth- first

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4 Breadth First Traversals All the nodes in one level are visited Followed by the nodes the at next level Beginning at the root For the sample tree –7, 6, 10, 4, 8, 13, 3, 5 7 6 35 4 10 813

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5 Queue and stack A queue is a sequence of elements such that each new element is added (enqueued) to one end, called the back of the queue, and an element is removed (dequeued) from the other end, called the front A stack is a sequence of elements such that each new element is added (or pushed) onto one end, called the top, and an element is removed (popped) from the same end

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6 Breadth first tree traversal with a queue Enqueue root While queue is not empty –Dequeue a vertex and write it to the output list –Enqueue its children left-to-right StepOutputQueue

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7 Depth-First Traversals There are 8 different depth-first traversals –VLR (pre-order traversal) –VRL –LVR (in-order traversal) –RVL –RLV –LRV (post-order traversal)

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8 Pre-order Traversal: VLR Visit the node Do a pre-order traversal of the left subtree Finish with a pre-order traversal of the right subtree For the sample tree –7, 6, 4, 3, 5, 10, 8, 13 7 6 35 4 10 813

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9 Pre-order tree traversal with a stack Push root onto the stack While stack is not empty –Pop a vertex off stack, and write it to the output list –Push its children right-to-left onto stack StepOutputStack

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10 Preorder Traversal r T1T1 T2T2 TnTn Step 1: Visit r Step 2: Visit T 1 in preorder Step n +1: Visit T n in preorder Step 3: Visit T 2 in preorder

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11 Example AREYPMHJQT A R EY P M HJ QT

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12 Ordering of the preorder traversal is the same a the Universal Address System with lexicographic ordering. AREYPMHJQT A R EY P M HJ QT 0 123 1.1 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3

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13 In-order Traversal: LVR Do an in-order traversal of the left subtree Visit the node Finish with an in-order traversal of the right subtree For the sample tree –3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13 7 6 35 4 10 813

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14 Inorder Traversal Step 1: Visit T 1 in inorder Step 2: Visit r Step n +1: Visit T n in inorder Step 3: Visit T 2 in inorder r T1T1 T2T2 TnTn

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15 Example AREYPMHJQT A R EY P M HJ QT

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16 inorder (t) if t != NIL: { inorder (left[t]); write (label[t]); inorder (right[t]); } Inorder Traversal on a binary search tree.

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17 Post-order Traversal: LRV 7 6 35 4 10 813 Do a post-order traversal of the left subtree Followed by a post- order traversal of the right subtree Visit the node For the sample tree –3, 5, 4, 6, 8, 13, 10, 7

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18 Postorder Traversal Step 1: Visit T 1 in postorder Step 2: Visit T 2 in postorder Step n +1: Visit r Step n : Visit T n in postorder r T1T1 T2T2 TnTn

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19 Example AREYPMHJQT A R EY P M HJ QT

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20 Representing Arithmetic Expressions Complicated arithmetic expressions can be represented by an ordered rooted tree –Internal vertices represent operators –Leaves represent operands Build the tree bottom-up –Construct smaller subtrees –Incorporate the smaller subtrees as part of larger subtrees

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21 Example ( x + y ) 2 + ( x -3)/( y +2) + x y 2 – x 3 + y 2 / +

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22 Infix Notation + – + / + 2 x y x 3 y 2 Traverse in inorder (LVR) adding parentheses for each operation x + y () 2 () + x – 3() / y + 2() () ()

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23 Prefix Notation (Polish Notation) Traverse in preorder (VLR) x + y 2 + x – 3 / y + 2 + – + / + 2 x y x 3 y 2

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24 Evaluating Prefix Notation In an prefix expression, a binary operator precedes its two operands The expression is evaluated right-left Look for the first operator from the right Evaluate the operator with the two operands immediately to its right

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25 Example + / + 2 2 2 / – 3 2 + 1 0 + / + 2 2 2 / – 3 2 1 + / + 2 2 2 / 1 1 + / + 2 2 2 1 + / 4 2 1 + 2 1 3

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26 Postfix Notation (Reverse Polish) Traverse in postorder (LRV) x + y 2 + x – 3 / y + 2 + – + / + 2 x y x 3 y 2

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27 In an postfix expression, a binary operator follows its two operands The expression is evaluated left-right Look for the first operator from the left Evaluate the operator with the two operands immediately to its left Evaluating Postfix Notation

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28 Example 3 2 2 + 2 / 3 2 – 1 0 + / + 4 2 / 3 2 – 1 0 + / + 2 3 2 – 1 0 + / + 2 1 1 0 + / + 2 1 1 / + 2 1 +

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Chapter 6 (cont’) Binary Tree. 6.4 Tree Traversal Tree traversal is the process of visiting each node in the tree exactly one time. This definition does.

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