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**Followed by a few examples of**

X-ray Diffraction The Basics Followed by a few examples of Data Analysis by Wesley Tennyson NanoLab/NSF NUE/Bumm

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**X-ray Diffraction Bragg’s Law Lattice Constants Laue Conditions**

θ - 2θ Scan Scherrer’s Formula Data Analysis Examples NanoLab/NSF NUE/Bumm

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Bragg’s Law nλ = 2 d sin θ Constructive interference only occurs for certain θ’s correlating to a (hkl) plane, specifically when the path difference is equal to n wavelengths.

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**the diffraction condition is met**

Bragg condition’s The diffraction condition can be written in vector form 2k∙G + G2 = 0 k - is the incident wave vector k’ - is the reflected wave vector G - is a reciprocal lattice vector such that where G = ∆k = k - k’ the diffraction condition is met NanoLab/NSF NUE/Bumm

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**Lattice Constants The distance between planes of atoms is**

d(hkl) = 2π / |G| Since G can be written as G = 2π/a (h*b1+ k*b2 +l*b3) Substitute in G d(hkl) = a / (h2 + k2 + l2)(1/2) Or a = d * (h2 + k2 + l2)(1/2) a is the spacing between nearest neighbors NanoLab/NSF NUE/Bumm

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**Laue Conditions a1∙∆k = 2πυ1 a2∙∆k = 2πυ2 a3∙∆k = 2πυ3**

Each of the above describes a cone in reciprocal space about the lattice vectors a1, a2, and a3. the υi are integers When a reciprocal lattice point intersects this cone the diffraction condition is met, this is generally called the Ewald sphere. NanoLab/NSF NUE/Bumm

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Summary of Bragg & Laue When a diffraction condition is met there can be a reflected X-ray Extra atoms in the basis can suppress reflections Three variables λ, θ, and d λ is known θ is measured in the experiment (2θ) d is calculated From the planes (hkl) a is calculated NanoLab/NSF NUE/Bumm

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θ - 2θ Scan The θ - 2θ scan maintains these angles with the sample, detector and X-ray source Normal to surface Only planes of atoms that share this normal will be seen in the θ - 2θ Scan NanoLab/NSF NUE/Bumm

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**Angle of incidence (θi) = Angle of reflection (θr)**

θ - 2θ Scan The incident X-rays may reflect in many directions but will only be measured at one location so we will require that: Angle of incidence (θi) = Angle of reflection (θr) This is done by moving the detector twice as fast in θ as the source. So, only where θi = θr is the intensity of the reflect wave (counts of photons) measured. NanoLab/NSF NUE/Bumm

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θ - 2θ Scan NanoLab/NSF NUE/Bumm

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**Smaller Crystals Produce Broader XRD Peaks**

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**Scherrer’s Formula t = thickness of crystallite**

K = constant dependent on crystallite shape (0.89) l = x-ray wavelength B = FWHM (full width at half max) or integral breadth qB = Bragg Angle

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**Scherrer’s Formula What is B? B = (2θ High) – (2θ Low)**

B is the difference in angles at half max Peak 2θ low 2θ high Noise

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**When to Use Scherrer’s Formula**

Crystallite size <1000 Å Peak broadening by other factors Causes of broadening Size Strain Instrument If breadth consistent for each peak then assured broadening due to crystallite size K depends on definition of t and B Within 20%-30% accuracy at best Sherrer’s Formula References Corman, D. Scherrer’s Formula: Using XRD to Determine Average Diameter of Nanocrystals.

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**Data Analysis Plot the data (2θ vs. Counts)**

Determine the Bragg Angles for the peaks Calculate d and a for each peak Apply Scherrer’s Formula to the peaks

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Bragg Example

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**Bragg Example d = λ / (2 Sin θB) λ = 1.54 Ǻ**

= 2.35 Ǻ Simple Right!

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Scherrer’s Example

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**Scherrer’s Example t = 0.89*λ / (B Cos θB) λ = 1.54 Ǻ = 1200 Ǻ**

Simple Right!

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