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E NDOCRINE S YSTEM Glands, Hormones, and intercellular communication.

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Presentation on theme: "E NDOCRINE S YSTEM Glands, Hormones, and intercellular communication."— Presentation transcript:

1 E NDOCRINE S YSTEM Glands, Hormones, and intercellular communication

2 W HAT IS A H ORMONE ? Similar, sometimes identical substances that have a similar mechanism of action wherever they’re produced.

3 W HY ARE HORMONES IMPORTANT ? Regulate Homeostasis Keeps everything balanced Regulate function of other body systems i.e. structural/skeletal Bone formation i.e. digestive system metabolism i.e. reproductive system menstrual cycle

4 H OW DO HORMONES WORK ANYWAY ? Endogenous substance Made by a cell or gland Travels to target cells via the bloodstream Enter the cell by endocytosis or… Binds and initiates a response Sonic Hedgehog “faster than the naked eye!”

5 W HAT ARE SOME CAUSES OF HORMONE IMBALANCE ? Genetic: Genes may not function Proteins may not be synthesized correctly Ex. Myostatin Protein Ex. Collagen Production Dude looks like a lady!

6 M Y, OH MY, OH MYOSTATIN! Protein that inhibits muscle growth Mighty Mouse! I’ll have what he’s havin!!!

7 T HE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE ENDOCRINE AND EXOCRINE SYSTEM Gland: Structure that synthesizes a product to be exported from the cells. Endocrine glands: NO DUCTS! Exocrine glands: DUCTS! i.e. sweat, oil for hair/skin Move substances to a body organ or to the surface


9 T HE P ITUITARY G LAND Posterior: Oxytocin: Uterine Contractions Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH) Controls blood fluid volume Targets the kidneys More water is removed from urine Anterior: Melanocyte stimulation growth hormone Growth Hypo= Dwarfism Hyper= GIGANTISM!

10 A QUICK STORY ABOUT LIFE, LOVE, AND F ROG P ITUITARY GLANDS ! Xenopus laevis “ The African Clawed Frog” Hypophysectomy

11 T HYROID G LAND : G. T HYREOS =S HIELD Affects almost every physiological process in your body Looks like a butterfly landed on your windpipe 2 lobes connected by isthmus Think “isthmus of Panama!”

12 T HYROID CONTINUED : Main duties of the thyroid: Regulate cellular metabolism Regulate cellular respiration Rate cells use glucose Rate of glycogen breakdown Maintains 98.6 Regulate growth Stimulate mental processes THE LIST CONTINUES!

13 T HYROID P ROBLEMS Thyroid CancerGoiterHypothyroidism Hypothyroidism: Underproduction of thyroid hormone Leads to Weight Gain Hyperthyroidism: Overproduction of thyroid hormone Leads to Weight Loss


15 A DRENAL G LAND Located on top of kidneys “Ad”= “renal”= Produces Epinephrine a.k.a.- Fight or Flight! What happens when the fight or flight response is activated?

16 MOOORTALLL COMMBAAAAAATT!!! T EST Y OUR M IGHT ! Eyes: Lungs: Bowel: Blood Vessels: Saliva: Skin: Heart: Stomach: Muscles:

17 T ESTES /O VARIES Testes produce estrogen Ovaries produce testosterone Both lead to development of secondary sex characteristics TESTOSTERONE ESTROGEN

18 H ORMONE MANIPULATION : R EPLACEMENT T HERAPY Testosterone High Levels: Men Increased Sex Drive Increased Muscle Mass Low Levels: Men Estrogen High Levels: Women Decreased Sex Drive Decreased Muscle Mass Low Levels: Women Hormone replacement therapy may be used to combat these symptoms! OR.... It can do other stuff!

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