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South America Global Cultures Snyder. Created by Katherine Snyder Landforms  Andes Mountains the entire west coast  formed from seduction  longest.

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Presentation on theme: "South America Global Cultures Snyder. Created by Katherine Snyder Landforms  Andes Mountains the entire west coast  formed from seduction  longest."— Presentation transcript:

1 South America Global Cultures Snyder

2 Created by Katherine Snyder Landforms  Andes Mountains the entire west coast  formed from seduction  longest in the world  Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela  Altiplano (“high plateau”)  Lake Titicaca  fresh water  ocean going vessels  Highest commercially navigable lake in the world  Border between Peru and Bolivia

3 Created by Katherine Snyder The Andes

4 Created by Katherine Snyder Santiago, Chile

5 Created by Katherine Snyder Lake Titicaca Uros artificial islands, in Peru

6 Created by Katherine Snyder Landforms  Guyana Highlands – Northern Brazil  Angel Falls – world’s highest  Brazilian Highlands – Brazil’s southeast corner  Amazon River Basin – world’s largest single mass of vegetation  Llanos – savanna grassland (Columbia and Venezuela)

7 Created by Katherine Snyder Guyana Highlands  Mt. Roraima (inspiration for the Lost World)

8 Created by Katherine Snyder

9 Angel Falls (Venezuela)

10 Created by Katherine Snyder Landforms  Gran Chaco – marsh – Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil  Pampas – temperate grassland  Patagonia – cold desert  Tierra del Fuego – an island divided between and Chile and Argentina

11 Created by Katherine Snyder Rivers  three great rivers drain the east  Amazon, Orinoco, Piranha  Amazon = largest in volume in the world – ocean ships from the Atlantic can go to Peru

12 Created by Katherine Snyder Climates, Plants, & Animals  Amazon – largest tropical rainforest in the world – over 150” of rain per year  many kinds of animals, including birds, jaguars, monkeys, toucans  Andes – climate depends on elevation  tree line = no trees above this

13 Created by Katherine Snyder Climates, Plants, & Animals  Atacama Desert – one of the world’s driest  wind, rain shadow, cold Peru Current  people actually catch or TRAP fog for the water

14 Created by Katherine Snyder Natural Resources  rivers furnish hydroelectric power and water for irrigation  escarpments in Brazil form water falls  rainforest – rubber, timber, etc.  Brazil, Colombia = gold, silver  Brazil = gasohol – does not need to import oil  Brazil = #1 in coffee  Colombia = world’s #2 in coffee exports  Colombia = emeralds  Venezuela = oil in Lake Maricaibo (OPEC)  Ecuador = oil  Venezuela = tar sands = rock and sand that contain oil  Canada has this type of resource also

15 Created by Katherine Snyder Coffee plant in Brazil Coffee farmer sorting beans in Columbia The Gachala Emerald is one of the largest gem emeralds in the world at 858 carats. This stone was found in 1967 at La Vega de San Juan mine in Gachalá, Colombia.

16 Created by Katherine Snyder Maricaibo, Venezuela (2 nd largest city in Venezuela, oil producing area) Bridge over the Orinoco at Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela Separating tar sands

17 Created by Katherine Snyder Ethanol fuel in Brazil  In Brazil, ethanol fuel is produced from sugar cane which is a more efficient source of fermentable carbohydrates than corn as well as much easier to grow and process.  Brazil has the tropical climate that is required for the productive culture of sugarcane.  Brazil has the largest sugar cane crop in the world, and is the largest exporter of ethanol in the world.  High government sales taxes on gasoline, as well as government subsidies for ethanol, have cultivated a profitable national ethanol industry.

18 Created by Katherine Snyder An early poster, prior to flexi- fuel engines, promoting alcohol fuel warns Brazilians not to mix standard petrol with alcohol fuel, and not to use alcohol in unconverted engines

19 Created by Katherine Snyder

20 South American Culture

21 Created by Katherine Snyder South America  12 countries and 1 colony (French Guiana)

22 Created by Katherine Snyder Early History  Inca – South America’s greatest early civilization – from Ecuador to Chile  built paved roads, suspension bridges  terraced farming  Spoke Quechua (still in SA)  their capital was Cuzco, Peru  buildings still there  Machu Picchu (great lost city)  conquered by Pizarro

23 Created by Katherine Snyder

24 Machu Picchu

25 Created by Katherine Snyder Colonization  Changed everything  Spanish set up colonies in all South American countries EXCEPT  Brazil (Portuguese)  Surinam (Dutch)  Guyana (British)  French Guyana (French)

26 Created by Katherine Snyder Culture  Indian, European, African and Asian

27 Created by Katherine Snyder People & Languages  Argentina = 97% European  Ecuador = 7% European  Why?  Indians are the poorest people  European languages are the main languages spoken

28 Created by Katherine Snyder Settlement Patterns  most people live on the coast  major cities are seaports  some cities are in the mountain valleys – La Paz, Lima, Quito

29 Created by Katherine Snyder Religion & Tradition  Roman Catholicism is predominant  changing rapidly but traditions remain (festivals, Carnaval in Brazil)  some people have little contact w/outside world

30 Created by Katherine Snyder The Economy  History of large gap between rich and poor  Today, middle class is growing  all are developing or middle-income countries  all have market economies

31 Created by Katherine Snyder Agriculture  from subsistence to large commercial farms/ranches  in most countries a few wealthy own the land  this has caused poverty and unrest  Colombia = #2 for coffee but also exports cut flowers  Chile – fresh fruit and vegetables to the US in the winter – it is their summer  Argentina and Uruguay – beef and wheat  reason they are the wealthiest countries

32 Created by Katherine Snyder Gauchos taming horses in Argentina. Huaso in a Chilean wheat field Brazilian hacienda

33 Created by Katherine Snyder Industry  there is some industry but most import parts and raw materials  MERCOSUR = Southern Common Market  Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay

34 Created by Katherine Snyder Urban Environments  very large cities  People come looking for jobs  rural poverty – good land is limited and cannot compete with big business  only a few find good jobs  slums are called favelas – surround the cities  government has tried to improve  Brazil’s poverty in the Northeast is very bad – they are the descendents of slaves

35 Created by Katherine Snyder Issues & Challenges  overall the countries are democratic  a rapidly growing population is making progress difficult  Amazon is being developed  much will disappear in the next 100 years  soil exhaustion  farm or graze for three years then land is useless  nutrients are leached out

36 Created by Katherine Snyder Indigenous People of SA Mapuche (“People of the Land”) are the Indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. Brazilian Indigenous chiefs of the Kayapo tribe: Raony, Kaye, Kadjor, Panara.

37 Created by Katherine Snyder Indigenous People of SA Korubo man from the Brazilian Amazon Peruvian indigenous people, learning to read Urarina man Muisca houses, Columbia

38 Created by Katherine Snyder The Countries of South America

39 Created by Katherine Snyder Brazil Today  Capital: Brasilia (moved inland from Rio de Janerio)  Largest City: Sao Paulo  Official language: Portuguese  Population: 189 million  Pop. Density: 57/sq mi  “Lonely Planet: Brazil” tape 6

40 Created by Katherine Snyder Brazil  Brazil is the largest country in South America – it occupies almost half the continent  First inhabitants were natives such as the Arawak  Portuguese fleet commander Pedro Alvares Cabral landed in Brazil in 1500 and claimed the land for Portugal

41 Created by Katherine Snyder Brazil  Today Brazil is the largest Portuguese- speaking country in the world  Culture is a mix of Europeans, Africans, and natives

42 Created by Katherine Snyder Brazil  There is a huge gap between few rich and the majority of poor people  Middle class today is starting to grow  Three-fourths of Brazilians live along the Atlantic coast  The population is growing rapidly  Over half of the population is under 25 years old, so Brazilian culture tends to be youthful and exuberant  “train surfing” Tape 6

43 Created by Katherine Snyder Favelas

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45 Brazilian Natives  Unlike the city-building peoples of the Andes, the native peoples of the Amazon Basin continue to live by hunting and fishing, relying on the natural products of the forest  The way of life for these peoples remained unchanged for thousands of years until the 20 th century

46 Created by Katherine Snyder Brazil  Today, their numbers are falling fast due to disease, destruction of the forest, and because many are drifting towards cities

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48 Rio de Janeiro

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50 Sao Paulo

51 Created by Katherine Snyder Argentina

52 Argentina  8 th largest country in the world  Extreme landscape and climate

53 Created by Katherine Snyder Argentina  Around 500 years ago there were probably some 300,000 Native Americans spread throughout the country (from sub-tropics to the cold southern tip)  Then, in the 1500s the Spanish arrived and began to take control of the country  Gradually, the indigenous population fell victim to European diseases, died in slavery, or were killed in wars and massacres

54 Created by Katherine Snyder Argentina  Today, there are only small numbers of natives living in remote areas  Most are descendents of Europeans, but about 15 percent are mestizos  Over centuries, waves of peoples have flooded Argentina – the Italians and British followed the Spanish  After WWII, Germans, Polish, Dutch, Hungarian, and Lebanese came

55 Created by Katherine Snyder Argentina  Proud to be a multi-cultural land  People mix freely, but also keep original languages, food, festivities, and traditions  Most people live in towns, and about one-third of the population lives in or around Buenos Aires  About half of the people are scattered across the Pampas  Large areas of the country have no inhabitants due to harsh terrain and climate

56 Created by Katherine Snyder Argentina  Argentina is one of the most modern countries in South America  Has trading partners around the world  Standard of education is high  Education is provided free for everyone

57 Created by Katherine Snyder Gauchos  Gauchos enjoy music before a barbeque  Whole lambs or sides of beef are split open, skewered on stakes, and propped up around a fire  This type of feast is often held during Christmas

58 Created by Katherine Snyder \

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60 Tierra del Fuego  Ushuaia, the capital is world’s southernmost town  “Falkland Islands – Penguins” tape 7

61 Created by Katherine Snyder Chile  South America’s elongated state

62 Created by Katherine Snyder Chile  Native American peoples, including the Incas in the north were living in Chile when Spanish conquerors arrived  Over time, the Spanish and the natives intermarried  Today, about 3/4s of the population is of mixed decent  Unlike Brazil, there is a large middle class in Chile

63 Created by Katherine Snyder Aymara  1.6 million people  Live in Chile, Bolivia, Argentina, and Peru

64 Created by Katherine Snyder Aymara  The native language of the Aymara is also named Aymara; in addition, many Aymara speak Spanish, which is the dominant language of the countries in which they live  Aymara have grown and chewed coca plants for centuries, and used its leaves in traditional medicine as well as in ritual offerings to the sun god Inti and the earth goddess Pachamama.  Over the last century, this has brought them into conflict with state authorities who have carried out coca eradication plans in order to prevent the creation of the drug cocaine, which is created by extracting the chemical from coca leaves in a complex chemical process.  Coca plays a profound role in the indigenous religions of both the Aymara and the Quechua

65 Created by Katherine Snyder Bolivia  Bolivia was home to the Tiahuanaco – one of the first great civilizations of the Andes  By the 1400s, the region was lost first to the Aymara, then the Incas, then the Spanish  Since its independence in 1825, Bolivia has gone through a series of war and political turmoil

66 Created by Katherine Snyder Bolivia  Bolivia lost its only stretch of coastline to Chile in the 1880s, and a large part of the Gran Chaco region to Paraguay  One of poorest countries in SA  People in rural areas tend to live in small communities and raise just enough crops to feed their families  Women weave cloth and make pottery for extra money

67 Created by Katherine Snyder Bolivia  In the city the majority of work in factories and live in sprawling areas of poor housing called barrios  The wealth few, by contrast, live in modern housing and often own large areas of land

68 Created by Katherine Snyder Bolivia  Unusual because over half of the people are Native Americans  The rest of the population is mostly Spanish, or mixed ancestry  Spanish is the official language, but only about 1/3 of the population speak it

69 Created by Katherine Snyder Carnaval de Oruro  biggest annual cultural event in Bolivia  ceremonies stem from Andean customs, which center around Pachamama (Mother Earth, transformed into the Virgin Mary due to Christian syncretism) and Tio Supay (Uncle God of the Mountains, transformed into the Devil).  The native Ito ceremonies were stopped in the 17th century by the Spanish, who were ruling the territory of Upper Peru at the time. However, the Uru continued to observe the festival in the form of a Catholic ritual  Christian icons were used to conceal portrayals of Andean gods, and the Christian saints represented other Andean minor divinities.  Legend also has it that in 1789, a mural of the Virgin Mary miraculously appeared in a mineshaft of the richest silver mine in Oruro.  Ever since, the Carnival has been observed in honor of Virgen del Socavon (Virgin of the Mineshaft).

70 Created by Katherine Snyder La Paz: highest capital city in the world 12,000 ft above sea level

71 Created by Katherine Snyder Ecuador  Almost half the population of Ecuador is Native American  Some groups lead nomadic lifestyles deep in the rain forest  While most natives live in eastern Ecuador, one group, the Colorados, lives on the coast  They are the only rain forest people in SA to live west of the Andes

72 Created by Katherine Snyder Huaorani “ naked ones ”  A tribe of the Amazon  Only 2,000 left  Their homeland is threatened by oil exploration and illegal logging practices

73 Created by Katherine Snyder Huaorani  In the animist Huaorani worldview, there is no distinction between the physical and spiritual worlds and spirits are present throughout the world.  The Huaorani once believed that the entire world was a forest (and used the same word, ömë, for both) and the Oriente’s rainforest remains the essential basis of their physical and cultural survival.  For them, the forest is home, while the outside world is unsafe: living in the forest offers protection from the witchcraft and attacks of neighboring peoples.

74 Created by Katherine Snyder Huaorani  Huaorani families practice endogamy, especially cross-cousin marriages — a male may marry his cousin(s) from one or more sisters on his father's side, or from brother(s) on his mother's side  The men may also have multiple wives  Sometimes, a man will kill another man to gain another wife; this was traditionally common if a man had no available cousin to marry.

75 Created by Katherine Snyder Quito

76 Llamas – SA camel  Herded in Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Argentina, and Chile  Tape 7: Andes Round Up or Tape 5: Andes Llamas

77 Created by Katherine Snyder Venezuela  Venezuela used to be a poor country dependent on farming, but today it is the richest country in South America  Why?  Oil reserves were found at Lake Maracaibo  Money made from the sale of oil allowed the government to launch a huge program to build roads and improve health care, education, and housing

78 Created by Katherine Snyder Venezuela  Poverty is still widespread  Modern cities are surrounded by shantytowns that continue to grow as more people flock in from the countryside looking for work

79 Created by Katherine Snyder Caracas

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82 Venezuela  Vast areas remain unexplored  Remote southwest is covered in dense rainforest  Native Americans are the only people who live here, leading lives barely touched by the modern world  Show Tape 6: Anacondas

83 Created by Katherine Snyder Venezuela  In the far north tourists and foreigners are drawn to the sandy beaches  In the center, cattle ranchers and farmers make a living on the Llanos  To the west, coffee is grown in the high Andes valleys

84 Created by Katherine Snyder Venezuela  According to the CIA's World FactBook, Venezuela's main ethnic affiliations are Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, German, Arab, African, indigenous people.

85 Created by Katherine Snyder Colombia  Won independence from Spain in 1819, but this did not bring peace  Suffered from civil wars since  Today wealth and power are in the hands of a very few  Majority are poor

86 Created by Katherine Snyder Colombia  Some of the wealthiest individuals are those who control vast exports of cocaine and other drugs  Since the mid-1980s, the government had been campaigning to stop this illegal trade, but it has met violent resistance from drug lords  Colombia has maintained a fragile hold on democracy

87 Created by Katherine Snyder

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89 Crime  Colombia has become notorious for its illicit drug production, kidnappings, and murder rate  In the 1990s, it became the world's largest producer of cocaine and coca derivatives  Cultivation of coca in 2000 was estimated at 402,782 acres

90 Created by Katherine Snyder What is the government doing?  In the year of 2006 the Colombian government had destroyed around 180,387 acres beating all records in coca plant destruction  The Colombian government now plans to destroy around 123,553 acres of coca plants in 2007 and they claim there will be only around 49,421 acres left, which they claim will be destroyed in 2008  While Colombian efforts to eradicate the coca plant have displaced production, they have not diminished the area on which the crop is harvested  This disputes the Colombian claim that coca will be eradicated in 2008.

91 Created by Katherine Snyder Murder Rate Top 10: (murders per year per 100,000 people)  Jamaica  Venezuela  South Africa  Colombia  El Salvador  Brazil  Guatemala  Russia  Ecuador  Kazakhstan  * most of Africa is unreported  *US is around 40th

92 Created by Katherine Snyder Colombian Natives  Today more than fifty different indigenous ethnic groups exist in Colombia.  Most of them speak languages belonging to the Chibchan and Cariban linguistic families.  The Colombian government has established 567 reserves for indigenous peoples and they are inhabited by more than 800,000 persons.  Some of the largest indigenous groups are the Arhuacos, the Muisca, the Kuna people, the Witoto, the Páez, the Tucano, the Wayuu and the Guahibo

93 Created by Katherine Snyder Columbian Farmers  Tape 1: Columbian Coffee Farmers

94 Created by Katherine Snyder Guyana  Only SA country where English is official language  Won independence from Britain in 1966  British traditions still alive (like cricket), capital is Georgetown  Original inhabitants were the Caribs, some of whom still live in forests of the south

95 Created by Katherine Snyder Guyana  Sugarcane is most important crop  Grown on coast where most people live  Mining is major activity (bauxite and gold)  Rain forest covers ¾ of country

96 Created by Katherine Snyder Suriname  Located on northern coast between Guyana and French Guyana  Smallest independent country in SA  Original inhabitants – Carib, Arawak, Warrau  Dutch took control in 1600s, established sugarcane plantations  Formerly called Dutch Guyana  Dutch also brought Indonesians

97 Created by Katherine Snyder Suriname  Large mix of peoples!  Asian, Creole, Dutch and European, Native  Official language is still Dutch, but many speak Sranan Tongo (combo of Dutch and African)  Cutting down valuable forest timber has driven Suriname’s natives deeper into the Amazon

98 Created by Katherine Snyder French Guiana  Has belonged to France since 1667  Has seats in French Parliament  Bananas, yams, corn, pineapples  Europeans, Africans, Chinese, Lebanese, Syrians, and Haitians  Poor country – depends on France  Trying to develop country with mining and timber industry

99 Created by Katherine Snyder Guiana Space Center  The Guiana Space Center is a French spaceport near Kourou  Operational since 1968, it is particularly suitable as a location for a spaceport due to its proximity to the equator, and the fact that launches in the favorable direction are over water.  The European Space Agency, the French space agency CNES, and the commercial Arianespace company conduct launches from Kourou.

100 Created by Katherine Snyder Devil ’ s Island  Devil's Island was a small part of the notorious French penal colony in French Guiana until 1952  Used by France from 1852 to 1946, the inmates were everything from political prisoners to the most hardened of thieves and murderers.  A great many of the more than 80,000 prisoners sent to the harsh conditions at disease-infested Devil's Island were never seen again  Other than by boat, the only way out was through a dense jungle; accordingly, very few convicts ever managed to escape.


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