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16.11.2001Dr. Ingrid Wetzel1 E-Business und E-Service Vorlesung 2 Support for Teams Work at Boeing, Seattle, M&CT Research Lab, Team: L. Fuchs, S. Poltrock,

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Presentation on theme: "16.11.2001Dr. Ingrid Wetzel1 E-Business und E-Service Vorlesung 2 Support for Teams Work at Boeing, Seattle, M&CT Research Lab, Team: L. Fuchs, S. Poltrock,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel1 E-Business und E-Service Vorlesung 2 Support for Teams Work at Boeing, Seattle, M&CT Research Lab, Team: L. Fuchs, S. Poltrock, I. Wetzel

2 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel2 Outline Motivation and Objective How teams cooperate Problems created by geographic distance Advantage of multimedia support Problems of integrating different media Design Ideas and Prototype Summary

3 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel3 Motivation

4 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel4 Motivation: Teams as Strategic Asset Quick responses to changing markets Development of complex systems Virtual Organizations

5 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel5 Example: Boeing Teams include people from different companies, regions, countries, continents Physically collocating all team members is often expensive and impractical Situation Boeing 777: „Working together“ 150 cross-discipline teams, arranged around aircraft volumes, with members selected for specialized knowlege and skills

6 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel6 Objective and Focus How can multimedia technology enable teams to work together more effectively across time and distance to support team cooperation, not specific development tasks

7 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel7 How Teams cooperate

8 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel8 Cooperative Work and Team H. Oberquelle, Kooperative Arbeit und Computerunterstützung, Verlag für angewandte Psychologie, 1991  „Cooperative work comprises work situations in which several people are working together for achieving a result which, under the given circumstances, can‘t be accomplished individually”.  agreement about common goals,  scarce resources,  coordination,  communication about aims and conventions.  People working together on a joint task form a cooperative group or a team.  „Cooperative work comprises work situations in which several people are working together for achieving a result which, under the given circumstances, can‘t be accomplished individually”.  agreement about common goals,  scarce resources,  coordination,  communication about aims and conventions.  People working together on a joint task form a cooperative group or a team.

9 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel9 Cooperative Work (again)  „..People engage in cooperative work when they are mutually dependent in their work and therefore are required to cooperate in order to get the work done.“ K. Schmidt, L. Bennon, Taking CSCW Seriously: Supporting Articulation Work, CSCW Journal 1992

10 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel10 Articulation Work  Comprises all “add-on” activities necessary because of working together (and not individually).  „..Due to the very interdependence in work that gave rise to the cooperative work arrangement... the distributed nature of the arrangements must be... managed. The distributed activities must be articulated“.  Comprises all “add-on” activities necessary because of working together (and not individually).  „..Due to the very interdependence in work that gave rise to the cooperative work arrangement... the distributed nature of the arrangements must be... managed. The distributed activities must be articulated“. K. Schmidt, L. Bennon, Taking CSCW Seriously: Supporting Articulation Work, CSCW Journal 1992

11 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel11 Example: LRU-IPT Volume LRU: An LRU is a box that can be replaced while the plane is at the gate, and the Bleed Air LRU controls airflow used to start the engines. LRU-IPT comprises: Software Engineer Quality Control Engineer Electrical EngineerTeam Lead knowledgeable about this domain Customer Representative from the group resonsible for all the electronic equipment on the plane

12 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel12 Articulation Work Program Manager System SEIT Program Support Team (supports all teams) IPT IPT IPT SEIT Subsystem SEIT Subsystem SEIT IPT IPT IPT IPT IPT Teams have to plan their work follow their plan manage a huge amount of documents control their status.... System Subsys System Subsys Customer Specification tree WBS IPPD Organization System Subsys Requirements Objectives Operational processes Support processes Specification System definition Product breakdown structure (PBS) Work breakdown structure (WBS) Program organizational structure IPT Lead Program Manager mapping Status Reports, Preliminary Results Status Reports, Preliminary Results Briefing Decision Issue Action Item Meeting Approvals, Product Approvals, Product Design Acknowledgements, Modification requests, Questions Acknowledgements, Modification requests, Questions Request Execute Deliver Accept Agree Plan RSVP Acknowledgement Agreement Discussion Understand program goals Doing the work Projected course of the work Current state of the work SOO PWBS TPM MIR Business Objectives Requirements Specifications Who IPTs Team Rosters RAM WBS PBS Phasing Plan Schedules Risks Project plates Stop light charts Deliverables/ Events SDRLs Reviews What Action items Decision logs Activity logs Coord. Sheets Work Statement

13 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel13 Informal Articulation Work People meet at their desks –opportunistic interactions People meet in hallways –social interactions People meet in (scheduled) meetings –coordination, reporting status and giving directions Software Engineer Quality Control Engineer Electrical Engineer Team Lead Customer Representative meetings problems advantagedisadvantage

14 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel14 Articulation Work to support team coordination Obstacle: Team members rarely view articulation work as their primary work activity Importance: Teams spent the majority of their work time performing articulation work. But: Articulation Work is difficult to observe and analyse. –uninteresting facet –not learned in their university engineering classes

15 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel15 How Teams Coordinate Documents Procedures Meetings Interactions FormalInformal Collocated

16 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel16 Problems created by geographic distance

17 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel17 Problems with Informal Articulation Work Lack of knowledge of people –Lack of trust –Difficult to manage –Cultural Drift Communications are difficult –Use of different media –Reactions are difficult to interpret –Words are not enough Frequency and quality of communications declines sharply Lack of synchroneous awareness

18 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel18 Problems with Formal Articulation Work Less indication of work progress and status –electronical models instead of physical ones –who did what? Coordination more time consuming –Structure substitutes mutual adjustment Responsibility –designing and organizing formal articulation articfacts Lack of asynchroneous awareness

19 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel19 Advantage of Multimedia Support

20 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel20 Multimedia  Computer Science:  Means for communication and representation of information  Media Science:  Means for communication with a symbolical character (needing interpretation)  Combination:  Media mediate between people, are a means for notifications and enable communication and cooperation in social communities.  Computer Science:  Means for communication and representation of information  Media Science:  Means for communication with a symbolical character (needing interpretation)  Combination:  Media mediate between people, are a means for notifications and enable communication and cooperation in social communities.  „The word also incorporates the meaning that there is something between two positions/instances and that this betweenness allows a connection, and with the connection the exchange/interchange between positions. The medium seems to be a means for overcoming distance whereby distance needs not necessarily be conceived as geographic.“ (Hoppe,Nake, 1995)

21 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel21 Multimedia  Computer Science:  Means for communication and representation of information  Media Science:  Means for communication with a symbolical character (needing interpretation)  Combination:  Media mediate between people, are a means for notifications and enable communication and cooperation in social communities.  Computer Science:  Means for communication and representation of information  Media Science:  Means for communication with a symbolical character (needing interpretation)  Combination:  Media mediate between people, are a means for notifications and enable communication and cooperation in social communities.

22 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel22 Media for Formal Articulation Work: Shared Information Space Asynchroneous awareness information –Indications about other people‘s actions Standard information management facilities Views BSCW

23 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel23 Media Support for Formal Articulation Work: Task Environment Workflow System COSA Task-centered environment –e.g. Action item tracking –“Tasks” represented in the systems (Focus on activities rather content –Chronological views (episodes) on tasks and plans as index to the content)

24 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel24 Media Support for Informal Articulation Work Real Time Awareness Virtual presence awareness –Seeing, if someone is online/active in the workspace –Seeing, if someone is available for communication –Seeing what someone is doing in the workspace Physical presence awareness –Real world instead of virtual word –Video at the workplace or in meetings Wanted: Real-time activity awareness Communicator

25 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel25 Media Support for Informal Articulation Work: Virtual Meetings Combination –Virtual and hybrid meetings –Communication facilities (Video, Audio) –Virtual presence awareness (Who is attending the meeting) –Task support (White board, Note taking) –Meeting documents (Real-time sharing) Preparation and follow-ups –Scheduling –Invitation, Agenda, Presentations –Protocoll, Action Items,...

26 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel26 How Teams Coordinate Documents Procedures Meetings Interactions Shared InfoSpace Shared InfoSpace Task Environment Task Environment Virtual Meetings Virtual Meetings Real Time Awareness Real Time Awareness FormalInformal Status ? Progress ? Collocated Distance Multimedia Less frequent Difficult

27 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel27 Problems of Integrating Media

28 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel28 Three modes of work Individual mode Meeting mode Social mode

29 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel29 Mode Shift People move effortlessly from one mode to another when collocated –Individual: Receive –Social: Hallway discussion –Individual: Write document sections –Meeting: Review document –Individual: Revise document Awareness Conversation Document Review document Revise document SynchronousAsynchronous

30 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel30 Design Ideas and Prototype

31 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel31 Design Guidelines Provide explicit representation of work modes –Meeting mode –Individual mode –Social Mode The work mode defines the task support Integrate and link tasks to the content and people Synchronous and asynchronous awareness can provide a bridge ContentPeople Work mode switch Task Awareness defines

32 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel32 Key Design Ideas for Integration ContentPeople Work mode switch Task Awareness defines Place & space Task-oriented environment Document View with asynchronous awareness Communicator with synchronous awareness

33 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel33 Place-based systems are useful to manage work-modes Steve IngridChris Meeting Room Team Room Coffee Room My Office L. FuchsNMC S Poltrock PDR R. JasperBN L. FuchsDeliverable C. Bussler Integration S Poltrock WMC RDT S Poltrock CDR Task View Document View To Do: Task Subtask Task Project Plan Awareness & Communication Places work mode accessability real-time awareness presense status

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38 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel38 Architecture FTP Domino Sametime T.120 Server T.120 Server BLUES/ LDAP HTTPD Places: Java Applet using Sametime API Socket Communication Persistent content Articulation objects Images, user status data conferencing Domino address book Boeing directory Web content H.323 audio/video

39 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel39 Summary

40 Dr. Ingrid Wetzel40 How Teams Coordinate Documents Procedures Meetings Interactions Shared InfoSpace Shared InfoSpace Task Environment Task Environment Virtual Meetings Virtual Meetings Real Time Awareness Real Time Awareness Episodes Tasks Real Time Awareness Real Time Awareness Meeting Support Meeting Support Switch of Modes Switch of Modes Integration FormalInformal Status ? Progress ? Less frequent Difficult Collocated Distance Multimedia Integration


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