Presentation on theme: "Typical Speech and Language Development: How to promote speech and language development… When to worry and when to relax."— Presentation transcript:
Typical Speech and Language Development: How to promote speech and language development… When to worry and when to relax
Objectives Describe the stages of Speech and Language development. Help you know when to be concerned about your child’s speech and language development Give you tools to help facilitate speech and language in everyday situations.
The 5 areas of Typical Speech and language development Syntax Semantics Morphology Pragmatics Phonology
Syntax The rules about how words are combined to form sentences. –Basically, grammar.
Semantics The meanings behind words and word combinations. –Vocabulary –Definitions –Implied meaning –Idioms
Morphology The understanding of the smallest unit of meaning in a language. –This includes the ability to add endings such as plural – s, -ing, -ed, ly etc. –Jump, jumping, jumped, jumps –Fast, faster, fastest, quickly
Pragmatics The study of how language is used in social situations. –Reading/understanding body language –taking turns in conversation or play –maintaining a topic –making eye contact
Phonology The study of how sounds are produced in a language. –Articulation
Now that we have all this background information……. Let’s take a look at how it applies to different ages and stages of development.
But first a warning… Every child is DIFFERENT! All of the stages of development that we are going to discuss tonight are guidelines. If your child is not meeting the milestones at exactly the “right” age does not mean that they aren’t developing typically. Remember that each child is different and that there is a range of time for all of these skills to develop.
Birth-3 Months Child will display a startle response to loud sounds Seems to recognize your voice and quiets if crying Attend and turn their head towards a voice Smile reflexively Quiet when picked up Stops activity or coos back when a person talks.
4-6 Months The child will: –Respond by raising arms when mother says come here –Responds to changes in tone of your voice –Move or look toward family members when they are named –Makes babbling sounds more speech-like with many different sounds, including p, b and m –Explore their voice through “vocal play” (growling, squealing, yelling, making “raspberries”) –Vocalizes excitement and displeasure Chuckles and laughs
7-9 Months The child will: –Look at objects when named –Understand “no” –Begins using gestures shake their head for no Waving Holding arms out to be picked up –Use a wide variety of sound combinations –Babbling with differing consonant sounds (bamabama)
10-12 Months The child will: –Understand up to 10 words –Understand simple directions (sit down) –Use first true word(s) –Give toys or objects on request –Turns head to their own name –Gesture and vocalize to indicate wants or needs
So my child is 1 or younger… What can I do to help? (the things you probably already do, but don’t think about)
Promoting language development: Birth to 1 Reinforce your baby's communication attempts by looking at him or her, speaking, and imitating his or her vocalizations Repeat his or her laughter and facial expressions. Teach your baby to imitate actions –Peekaboo –Clapping –blowing kisses –pat-a-cake –waving bye-bye
Promoting language development: Birth to 1 Talk while you are doing things, such as dressing, bathing, and feeding (e.g., "Mommy is washing Sam's hair"; "Sam is eating carrots"; "Oh, these carrots are good!"). Talk about where you are going, what you will do once you get there, and who and what you'll see (e.g., "Sam is going to Grandma's house. Grandma has a dog. Sam will pet the dog.").
1-2 Years Syntax & Morphology: –Uses one to two word phrases –The child will use one word to convey an entire sentence worth of meaning: Doggie!—Look at the Doggie Doggie?– Is that a doggie? Doggie.– Naming the object. –May begin adding beginning word endings by 24 months adding –ing, and making words into plurals (dogs)
1-2 Years Cont. Semantics: –Produces 50 words by 24 months (nouns most prevalent) –Understands around 200 words –Follows 1-step commands with gestures –Responds to yes/no questions –Points to 1-2 body parts
1-2 Years Cont. Pragmatics: –Child can be both the speaker and listener –Eye contact –Turn taking –Joint reference (will look at a book with an adult and maintain attention at 18 months)
So my child is 1-2… What can I do to help? (the things you probably already do, but don’t think about)
Promoting language development: 1-2 Keep talking while you do things and go places (explain what you are seeing/doing) Use simple but grammatical speech that is easy for your child to imitate. Expand on words. For example, if your child says "car," you respond by saying, "You're right! That is a big red car."
Promoting language development: 1-2 Read to your child as often as possible. –Try to find books with large pictures and one or two words or a simple phrase or sentence on each page –Name and describe the pictures on each page –Have your child point to pictures that you name
2-3 Years Syntax: –Uses 2-4 words per sentence Sentence forms include: –Object+verb “Mommy go” –Verb+object “Go car.” –Subject+verb+object “Mommy read book” –Wh- questions (What that?) –Expresses negation by saying no. (No eat.)
2-3 Years Cont. Morphology: –Present progressive –ing –Plural –s –Regular past tense –Some irregular past tense words that are commonly used like went. –Prepositions in and on –Possessive –s (Mommy’s or Daddy’s)
2-3 Years Cont. Semantics –Produces between words –Understands around 3,600 words –Answers simple Wh- questions –Identifies some body parts –Follows one and two-step commands –At 3 can tell a simple story –First pronouns (I and/or me) –Understands plurals
2-3 Years Cont. Pragmatics –Child’s sentences are usually self centered but are generally communicative in nature. –Shifts from one topic to another very rapidly Phonology –In general, by age 3 they should produce: p, b, m, n, h, w –Speech is understood by familiar listeners most of the time
So my child is 2-3… What can I do to help? (the things you probably already do, but don’t think about)
Promoting language development: 2-3 years old Continue to expand on what your child says Expand on your child's vocabulary by reading books that have a simple sentence on each page Look at family photos and name the people. Use simple phrases/sentences to describe what is happening in the pictures (e.g., "Sam swims in the pool"). Ask your child questions that require a choice, rather than simply a "yes" or "no" answer
3-4 Years Syntax: –Sentence length averages 3-5 words –Begins using complex and compound sentences (“I jump and play”) embeded clauses (“That dog over there is big”) Passive voice (“Mommy was kissed by daddy”) Negative sentences (“I can’t do it”)
3-4 Years Cont. Morphology: –Begins using: Irregular plurals Third person singular present tense (she talks) Past and present progressive (was walking, is running) Reflexive pronouns (myself, himself) Uses simple regular plurals correctly Contractions
3-4 Years Cont. Semantics: –Produces between words –Understands 4,200-5,600 words –Asks how, why and when questions. –Understands common opposites (big/little) –Has labels for almost everything in their environment. –Tells about activities in sequential order
3-4 Years Cont. Pragmatics: –Can maintain a conversation –Uses words like please, thank you, hello, and goodbye. Phonology –In general, by age 4 they should also produce: t, d, k, g, f
So my child is 3-4… What can I do to help? (the things you probably already do, but don’t think about)
Promoting language development: 3-4 years old Expand vocabulary and the length of your child' s utterances by reading, singing, talking about what you are doing and where you are going, and saying rhymes Start reading books that have a simple plot, and talk about the story line with your child –You can act out parts of the story together –Have your child retell the story Encourage pretend play
4-5 Years Syntax: –Sentence length words –Uses complete sentences –Uses future verb tenses “I will go” Morphology: –Comparatives (big, bigger) –More consistent irregular plurals –Most pronouns including posessives (mine, his)
4-5 Years Cont. Semantics: –Produces words; Understands words. –Names items in a category (animals, clothes, toys) –Defines common words –Tells longer stories with more accurate details –Identifies objects by function (“show me which one you write with”) –Uses “why” questions
4-5 Years Cont. Pragmatics: –Begins to respond to conversational repairs (I don’t understand, could you explain that again?) –Better able to maintain topics in conversation –Less egocentric Phonology: –In general by age 5 the child should also produce: -ng- as in song, j- as in yarn
So my child is 4-5… What can I do to help? (the things you probably already do, but don’t think about)
Promoting language development: 4-5 years old Encourage your child to ask for an explanation if he or she does not understand what a word means Read stories with easy-to-follow plots. Help your child predict what will happen next in the story. Start to play early board games (Candyland, Chutes and Ladders) Play games like “I Spy”
5-6 Years Syntax: –Sentence length 6-8 words –Past, present and future tense –Language approaches more of an adult level Morphology: –Uses indefinite pronouns (nobody) –Superlative –est (earliest) and –ly (slowly) Semantics –Understands and expresses spatial relationships (on/off) –Describes similarities and differences –Names the order of objects (first, second, third)
5-6 Years Cont. Pragmatics: –Responds appropriately to and requests conversational repairs –Understands humor and responds appropriately Phonology: –In general by age 6 the child should also produce: ch, sh, s, dg-as in judge, l
Later developing sounds By age 7: l blends, st, v, r (initial position-red), vocalic r (bird, horse), r-blends (grow, drive) By age 8: –Th (voiced and unvoiced) sp, sw, sl, z, r in all positions
Things To Watch For No words by 18 months Limited to no eye contact by 18 months Pervasive rocking or flapping Highly unintelligible speech at 3 (understanding less than 50% of what the child says) Not putting a variety of words together by the time they’re ready for preschool
Ways You Can Encourage Speech and Language Development at Home READ to your child Parallel and self talk Describe what you are doing to the child while you are doing it and describe what the child is doing while he/she is doing it. Model correct sentence structures –If the child leaves out words you can fill them in and/or expand their sentences. “Want cookie” “Oh you want a cookie” “Look doggie” “Yes, look at the big dog! It is black and white. Look at him run”
More….. Encourage pretend play and play with them. Encourage play with other children their own age or older to improve pragmatic skills. Model correct productions of words: –If the child says “nake” for “snake” you say it correctly for them.
ALMOST EVERYTHING YOU DO CAN ENCOURAGE SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT! JUST KEEP TALKING WITH YOUR KIDS!