# Gr. 8 Social Sciences Term 1

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Gr. 8 Social Sciences Term 1
Topic 1: Maps and Globes

Chapter 1: Maps and Atlases
Unit 1: Latitude and longitude – degrees, minutes and seconds.

Latitude Source: CAPS Platinum Social
Lines of latitude are called parallel arcs. (not circles) The most important latitude line (0° latitude)is called the EQUATOR. Each line of latitude has a value in degrees. The angle of each line is measured from an imaginary point in the centre of the earth. Lines of latitude lies NORTH or SOUTH of the Equator. South Africa lies SOUTH of the EQUATOR. Source: CAPS Platinum Social Sciences Learner’s book Gr. 8 p. 4

Longitude Source: CAPS Platinum Social Sciences
Lines of longitude pass through both the north and south poles. They are not parallel lines Lines of longitude are sometimes called meridians. The Greenwich Meridian, also known as the prime meridian is the most important longitude line (0° longitude). This is the meridian from where the world time zones are calculated. Line of longitude lies EAST or WEST of the Greenwich Meridian. South Africa lies EAST of the GREEN- WICH/PRIME MERIDIAN. Source: CAPS Platinum Social Sciences Learner’s book Gr. 8 p. 4

Degrees, minutes and seconds
Lines of latitude and longitude on maps and globes make it easier to find places. Each line of latitude and longitude has a value in degrees. 1° (degree) can be divided into 60' (minutes) and 1' can be divided into 60“ (seconds). When we combine latitude and longitude we get COORDINATES Source: CAPS Platinum Social Sciences Learner’s book Gr. 8 p. 5

Unit 2: Using the atlas index to find places on a map
Platinum Social Science Learner’s book Gr. 8 p. 6-7 Complete Activity 2.

Unit 3: Kinds of scale in an atlas
There are three main scales of maps in an atlas: World scale – Maps of the world, maps of continents Local scale – Maps of provinces, maps of one country Regional scale – parts of a continent , e.g. Southern Africa Source: CAPS Platinum Social Sciences Learner’s Book Gr. 8 p. 8

Unit 4: Scales Word Scale: Line scale: Ratio scale:
One centimeter on the map represents 50 kilometers on the ground. Line scale: Ratio scale: 1 : Source: CAPS Platinum Social Sciences Learner’s book Gr. 8 p. 10