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Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Jun-2007 Updated 01-Apr-2010 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev.

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Presentation on theme: "Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Jun-2007 Updated 01-Apr-2010 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev."— Presentation transcript:

1 Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Jun-2007 Updated 01-Apr-2010 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev Jan-2014

2 2 This Training Slide Show is a project undertaken by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell of the TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron, Fort Worth, TX for local use to assist those CAP Members interested in advancing their skills. The information contained herein is for CAP Member’s personal use and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for any of the CAP National Training Programs. Users should review the presentation’s Revision Number at the end of each file name to ensure that they have the most current publication.

3 3 Discuss considerations for operating near controlled airports, and identify them on a sectional. Discuss considerations for operating near controlled airports, and identify them on a sectional. Discuss the following special use airspaces, and identify them on a sectional: Discuss the following special use airspaces, and identify them on a sectional: Prohibited and Restricted Areas Prohibited and Restricted Areas Military operating areas and training routes Military operating areas and training routes Discuss the use and limitations of the following: Discuss the use and limitations of the following: ADF ADF VOR VOR DME DME GPS GPS Objectives

4 4 Given a sectional chart, a plotter, and two airports: Given a sectional chart, a plotter, and two airports: Plot the course Plot the course Identify check points along the route Identify check points along the route Calculate how long it should take to get from one airport to the other, flying at 100 kts with no wind Calculate how long it should take to get from one airport to the other, flying at 100 kts with no wind Given Attachment E of the U.S. National SAR Supplement to the International Aeronautical and Maritime SAR Manual, grid a sectional. Given Attachment E of the U.S. National SAR Supplement to the International Aeronautical and Maritime SAR Manual, grid a sectional. Given coordinates and a sectional, use the Standardized Latitude and Longitude Gird System to draw a search grid. Given coordinates and a sectional, use the Standardized Latitude and Longitude Gird System to draw a search grid. Objectives (Continued)

5 5 Define the following navigation terms: Define the following navigation terms: Course, heading and ground track Course, heading and ground track Nautical mile and knot Nautical mile and knot Latitude and Longitude Latitude and Longitude Given a map or sectional: identify an object given its latitude and longitude; and given a position determine its latitude and longitude. Given a map or sectional: identify an object given its latitude and longitude; and given a position determine its latitude and longitude. Given a sectional chart, locate and discuss: Given a sectional chart, locate and discuss: Physical features such as topographical details Physical features such as topographical details Towns and cities Towns and cities Highways and roads Highways and roads Towers; determine height in both MSL and AGL Towers; determine height in both MSL and AGL Airways and radio aids to navigation Airways and radio aids to navigation Airports and airport data Airports and airport data Objectives (Continued)

6 6 Given a sectional chart, discuss the information found in the Legend Given a sectional chart, discuss the information found in the Legend Given a sectional chart, locate Maximum Elevation Figures and state their meaning Given a sectional chart, locate Maximum Elevation Figures and state their meaning Given a sectional chart, a plotter, and two points on the chart: Given a sectional chart, a plotter, and two points on the chart: Determine the cardinal heading Determine the cardinal heading Determine the distance between the two points (nautical and statute miles) Determine the distance between the two points (nautical and statute miles) Given data from navaids, track the current position of an aircraft and determine the position of a ground feature (sectional and map) Given data from navaids, track the current position of an aircraft and determine the position of a ground feature (sectional and map) State the size of a full and a one-quarter standardized grid State the size of a full and a one-quarter standardized grid Objectives (Continued)

7 7 Given Attachment E of the U.S. National SAR Supplement to the International Aeronautical and Maritime SAR Manual, grid a sectional. Given Attachment E of the U.S. National SAR Supplement to the International Aeronautical and Maritime SAR Manual, grid a sectional. Given coordinates and a sectional, use the Standardized Latitude and Longitude Gird System to draw a search grid. Given coordinates and a sectional, use the Standardized Latitude and Longitude Gird System to draw a search grid. Objectives (Continued)

8 8 Navigation Terms Course - planned or actual path of the aircraft over the ground Course - planned or actual path of the aircraft over the ground True course True course Magnetic course Magnetic course Heading - direction the aircraft is pointing Heading - direction the aircraft is pointing Ground track – actual path of the aircraft over the ground Ground track – actual path of the aircraft over the ground Nautical mile (nm) - measurement used in air navigation Nautical mile (nm) - measurement used in air navigation Knots (kts) - nautical miles per hour Knots (kts) - nautical miles per hour

9 9 Locating a Position Use a system of imaginary lines Use a system of imaginary lines Some run north and south (latitude) Some run north and south (latitude) Others run east and west (longitude) Others run east and west (longitude) Where they cross defines a point on the earth Where they cross defines a point on the earth By convention, latitude is stated first By convention, latitude is stated first

10 10 Latitude Lines of latitude run east and west Lines of latitude run east and west Latitude starts with 0°at the equator Latitude starts with 0°at the equator Latitude increases to 90°north at the North Pole and 90°south at the South Pole Latitude increases to 90°north at the North Pole and 90°south at the South Pole Great Circle and Lesser Circles Great Circle and Lesser Circles North Latitudes South Latitudes Equator

11 11 Longitude Longitude has to start someplace Longitude has to start someplace So 0° is in Greenwich England So 0° is in Greenwich England East and west longitude increase as you move away from the Prime Meridian East and west longitude increase as you move away from the Prime Meridian East Longitude West Longitude Prime Meridian

12 12 Longitude Greenwich (Prime) Meridian is zero degrees longitude on one side of the earth Greenwich (Prime) Meridian is zero degrees longitude on one side of the earth East and west longitude increase until they meet at 180° on the other side of the earth East and west longitude increase until they meet at 180° on the other side of the earth All line of longitude are great circles (same length) All line of longitude are great circles (same length) Lines of Longitude Prime Meridian or 0 degrees

13 13 Aeronautical Sectional Charts

14 14 Legend

15 15 Legend

16 16 Sectional Airports Airspace Navaids MEFs

17 17 Sectional Aeronautical Charts 1 to 500,000 1 to 500,000 Medium to slow speed aircraft Medium to slow speed aircraft Types of Information: Legend, Aeronautical, Topographical Types of Information: Legend, Aeronautical, Topographical

18 18 Sectional Restricted Area Military Training Routes

19 19 BAK North

20 20 BAK South

21 21 MOA

22 22 Position Determination Sectional or Map Sectional or Map Work from larger to smaller Work from larger to smaller Work from a known location to present location Work from a known location to present location Watch the scale on maps Watch the scale on maps Remain suspicious if all points don’t seem to line up right Remain suspicious if all points don’t seem to line up right Use groups of 3 characteristics to verify position Use groups of 3 characteristics to verify position

23 23 Tracking and Recording Position Maintain positional awareness from takeoff to landing Maintain positional awareness from takeoff to landing Finger on the map method using visual landmarks Finger on the map method using visual landmarks Ask the pilot or observer to determine position using GPS and/or VOR/DME Ask the pilot or observer to determine position using GPS and/or VOR/DME

24 Once you locate a downed aircraft or determines the location of a breech in the levy, you must be able to pinpoint the location on the sectional and report that position to others. Since the details on the sectional chart are often not detailed enough to be useful to ground units, you have to transfer that information to a map (e.g., road or topographical) Once you locate a downed aircraft or determines the location of a breech in the levy, you must be able to pinpoint the location on the sectional and report that position to others. Since the details on the sectional chart are often not detailed enough to be useful to ground units, you have to transfer that information to a map (e.g., road or topographical) 24 Tracking and Recording Position

25 Knowing the aircraft's position at all times is essential if an in-flight emergency should occur. Equipment malfunctions, an electrical fire, or a medical emergency can necessitate landing at the nearest airport: if you don't know where you are, how can you find the nearest airfield Knowing the aircraft's position at all times is essential if an in-flight emergency should occur. Equipment malfunctions, an electrical fire, or a medical emergency can necessitate landing at the nearest airport: if you don't know where you are, how can you find the nearest airfield 25 Tracking and Recording Position

26 26 At Obstacles and Other Dangers TALL TOWERS

27 27 At Obstacles and Other Dangers GUY WIRES

28 28 Obstacles and Other Dangers POWER LINES

29 29 Obstacles and Other Dangers LOW-FLYING, HEAVY AIRCRAFT

30 30 CAP Standard Grid System Overlays standard sectional maps Overlays standard sectional maps Subdivides the map into distinct working areas Subdivides the map into distinct working areas Each grid is 1/4° (15 minutes) of latitude by 1/4° of longitude and is assigned a number Each grid is 1/4° (15 minutes) of latitude by 1/4° of longitude and is assigned a number Grids are further divided into sub-grids labeled A, B, C, and D Grids are further divided into sub-grids labeled A, B, C, and D Each sectional has a standard for assigning grid numbers — for areas of overlap the grid number of the most westerly chart is used Each sectional has a standard for assigning grid numbers — for areas of overlap the grid number of the most westerly chart is used

31 31 CAP Conventional Grid System Each grid on the sectional is assigned a number Each grid on the sectional is assigned a number In this example, the grid depicted is on the St Louis Sectional In this example, the grid depicted is on the St Louis Sectional STL 159 STL 159 Grids are subdivided into smaller sections Grids are subdivided into smaller sections Letters are used to define sub-grids Letters are used to define sub-grids W ’ W W N N A B C D STL 159A N W

32 32 Cell Grid System Can be used on any kind of chart that has lines of lat/long Can be used on any kind of chart that has lines of lat/long 1° blocks identified by the intersection of whole numbers of lat/long, such as 36-00N and W 1° blocks identified by the intersection of whole numbers of lat/long, such as 36-00N and W Points are designated with the latitude first (36 /102) and they identify the area north and west of the intersection of these two lines Points are designated with the latitude first (36 /102) and they identify the area north and west of the intersection of these two lines Grids can be subdivided into smaller sections Grids can be subdivided into smaller sections Letters are used to define sub-grids Letters are used to define sub-grids

33 33 Marking Grid Charts You can use a new sectional — normally not updated unless it gets worn out You can use a new sectional — normally not updated unless it gets worn out Use a Hi-Lighter (not pink) to mark grid boundaries on the chart using a long ruler Use a Hi-Lighter (not pink) to mark grid boundaries on the chart using a long ruler Mark grid identification in black ink for easy visibility Mark grid identification in black ink for easy visibility You should always keep a current sectional with you even if you have a sectional which is marked with grids You should always keep a current sectional with you even if you have a sectional which is marked with grids

34 34 Electronic Aids to Navigation Automatic direction finder (ADF) Automatic direction finder (ADF) Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR) Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR) Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Global Positioning System (GPS) Global Positioning System (GPS)

35 35 ADF Automatic Direction Finding Automatic Direction Finding ADF ADF Oldest system Oldest system Fair accuracy Fair accuracy Low cost Low cost Homing only Homing only Needle always points toward the station Aircraft headed North

36 36 Using ADF To Determine Position Automatic Direction Finding Automatic Direction FindingADF Oldest system Oldest system Fair accuracy Fair accuracy Low cost Low cost Homing only Homing only

37 37 VOR Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Ranging Very High Frequency Omnidirectional RangingVOR Very common Very common Most air routes defined by VORs Most air routes defined by VORs Good Accuracy Good Accuracy VOR provides heading and course deviation indication Radial

38 38 VOR

39 39 VOR

40 40 Using the VOR to Determine Position Turn the OBS knob until the needle centers with a FROM flag Turn the OBS knob until the needle centers with a FROM flag Read the bearing from the station directly at the top Read the bearing from the station directly at the top Plot the bearing on the chart Plot the bearing on the chart

41 41 Keeping Track of Your Position

42 42 DME Distance Measuring Equipment Distance Measuring Equipment TACAN or VORTAC TACAN or VORTAC Very Accurate when flying directly towards Very Accurate when flying directly towards Slant range Ground Range

43 43 DME

44 44 GPS Global Positioning System Global Positioning System 24 Satellites 24 Satellites GPS receiver GPS receiver Very accurate Very accurate

45 45 Know Your Chart Symbols

46 46 Questions? ALWAYS THINK SAFETY!


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