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MATH VOCABULARY FOR BASIC CALCULATIONS Fina Cano Cuenca I.E.S. “Don Bosco”. Albacete

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+ plus Example: Two plus two add, additionto join two o more numbers (or quantities) to get one number (called the sum or total) addend addend sum = 10

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- minus Example: Six minus four Subtraction, subtract to take one quantity away from another minuend subtrahend difference = 7 There are several ways of expressing subtraction: Ten deduct three = seven Ten subtract three = seven Ten take away three = seven Ten minus three = seven Ten less three = seven or … the difference between ten and three. They all mean the same thing: 10 – 3 = 7

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x or * or · timesExample: 5 x 3 or 5 * 3 or 5 · 3 Five times three multiplication (to multiply) a mathematical operation where a number is added to itself a number of times multiplicand multiplier product 7 · 3 = 21 seven times three is twenty-one (or seven multiplied by three is/makes twenty-one)

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/ or ÷ or : divided by Example: 4 / 2 or 4 ÷ 2 or 4 : 2 four divided by two division (to divide)sharing o grouping a number into equal parts dividend divisor quotient 20 : 2 = 10 remainder: amount left over after dividing a number. r: remainder left over divisible: can be divided without a remainder. e.g. 20 is divisible by 2 and 10 factor (divisor): a number that divides exactly into another number. e.g. 2 and 10 are factors of 20

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= equals (is equal to) Example: = 4 Two plus two equals four (or two plus two is equal to four) ≠ is not equal to Example: 12 ≠ 15 Twelve is not equal to fifteen < is less than Example: 7 < 10 Seven is less than ten > is greater than Example: 12 > 8 Twelve is greater than eight ≤ is less than or equal to Example: ≤ 6 Four plus one is less than or equal to six ≥ is greater than or equal to Example: ≥ 10 Five plus seven is greater than or equal to ten

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setcollection of items symbol: members of a set are called elements There are 4 elements in this set VennVenn diagrama diagram using circles or other shapes to show the relationship between sets

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Real numbers may be classified as: natural numberscounting numbers from one to infinity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,... whole numberscounting numbers from zero to infinity 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,... integerspositive numbers and negative numbers and zero, but not fractions or decimals..., -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3,... rationalsintegers, fractions, terminating and repeating decimals..., -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3,..., 0.5,,... irrationalsnon-terminating and non-repeating decimals,, ,....

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fractionany part of a group, number or whole Example: one half Example: One and one half one third Example: Three and one third one quarter Example: Two and one quarter,, five ninths, two thirds, five sixths (Read the top number as a cardinal number, followed by the ordinal number + ‘s’ ) Example: Four and two thirds five over thirty

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proper fraction numerator is less than the denominator Example: improper fraction numerator is greater than or equal to denominator Example: mixed numberwhole number and a fraction Example: equivalent fractions fractions that represent the same number Example: reducewe reduce a fraction by finding an equivalent fraction in which the numerator and denominator are as small as possible Example:

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power of (number)the number of times a base number is multiplied by itself 10 4 Index (exponent) Base number Read asExpandedValue 3232 three squared or three to the power of two 3· five cubed or five to the power of three 5·5· two to the power of five2·2·2·2· ten to the power of four10·10·10·

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factor a whole number that divides exactly into another number a whole number that multiplies with another number to make a third number proper factorall the factors of a number except 1 and the number itself compositea number with more than two factors Example: 12 is a composite number The factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 prime number number that has exactly two factors number that can only be divided by itself and one Example: 2 is a prime number Note: 1 is not a prime number. It only has one factor (1), not two. prime factora factor that is also a prime number Example: 5 is a prime factor of 30

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factoriseto write a number as a product of its factors prime factorisation to write a number as a product of its prime factors greatest common factor or divisor (GCF) the biggest number that will divide two or more other numbers exactly Example: the greatest common factor of 30, 45 and 60 is 15 least common multiple (LCM) the smallest number that is the multiple of two or more other numbers Example: the least common multiple of 3, 4 and 6 is 12

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square number a number that results from multiplying another number by itself Example: 9 is a square number because 9 = 3 2 A square number can be represented in the shape of a square. cube number a number that results from multiplying another number three times by itself Example: 125 is a cube number because 125 = 5 3 A cubed number can be represented in the shape of a cube. 5 3 = 125

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square root of a number a number when multiplied by itself gives the original number Example: cube root of a number one of three identical factors of a number that is the product of those factors Example:

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sequenceA sequence is a set of numbers that follow a pattern. Examples: 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, … are the first five terms of a sequence that goes up in 4s 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, … are the first five terms of a sequence that doubles 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, … is the sequence of square numbers 1, 8, 27, 64, 125, … is the sequence of cube numbers If you work out the pattern, you can work out the next numbers in the sequence. Below are some examples: a) The rule is to add 6 each time So the next numbers would be = 33 b) The rule is to multiply by 3 each time So the next numbers would be 54 · 3 = 162

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even numbera number that is divisible by 2 Example: 3788 Even numbers end with 2, 4, 6, 8 or 0 The sequence of even numbers is: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, … and so on odd numbera number that is not divisible by 2 Example: 4399 Odd numbers end with 1, 3, 5, 7 or 9 The sequence of odd numbers is: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, … and so on

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