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Temporal Contiguity Principle 040202_chun. Introduction What is Temporal Contiguity ? –The corresponding words and pictures are contiguous in time. What.

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Presentation on theme: "Temporal Contiguity Principle 040202_chun. Introduction What is Temporal Contiguity ? –The corresponding words and pictures are contiguous in time. What."— Presentation transcript:

1 Temporal Contiguity Principle _chun

2 Introduction What is Temporal Contiguity ? –The corresponding words and pictures are contiguous in time. What is successive presentation? –The corresponding words and pictures are not contiguous in time. What is simultaneous presentation? –The corresponding words and pictures are presented at the same time.

3 The case for separating words and pictures simultaneous presentation –Allows for only one exposure with verbal and visual depiction happening at the same time. successive presentation –Allows two separate exposure.

4 The case for separating words and pictures (Cont.) The information-delivery theory –Students should learn more with successive presentations –Students receive two deliveries –Predicts that students given successive presentations should outperform simultaneous presentations on tests.

5 The case for integrating words and pictures Cognitive theory of multimedia learning –Simultaneous presentation increase the chances to hold visual and verbal representations at the same time. –Successive presentations require a learner to hold the entire narration in working memory until the animation presented.

6 The case for integrating words and pictures (Conts.) Cognitive theory of multimedia learning (Conts.) –Predicts that : simultaneous presentation are better able to understand the explanation. (using transfer test ) Simultaneous presentation would perform better on retention Successive presentation are more likely to focus on the wording of the verbal presentation

7 Distinction between spatial contiguity and temporal contiguity spatial contiguity –Deals with placing corresponding words and pictures close to each other on the page temporal contiguity –Deals with presenting corresponding words and pictures close to each other in time

8 Temporal contiguity effect for retention

9 Temporal contiguity effect for retention (Conts.) Why did we fail to find a temporal contiguity effect for the retention? –In simultaneous, students were able to build a deeper understanding of the material. –In successive, students were able to listen to the narration without any other distractions, which should help them in verbal retention

10 Temporal contiguity effect for transfer

11 Temporal contiguity effect for transfer (Conts.) Transfer test are intended to measure the learner ’ s understanding of the presented material The simultaneous performed much better than the successive. This evidence support the cognitive theory of multimedia learning and against the information delivery theory.

12 Extensions of the temporal contiguity effect for retention and transfer

13 Extensions of the temporal contiguity effect for retention and transfer (Conts.)

14 The successive small-segments presentations enable the same kind of active cognitive processing as simultaneous presentations.

15 Extensions of the temporal contiguity effect for retention and transfer (Conts.)

16 Presenting simultaneous resulted in transfer performance essentially equivalent to presenting successively in small segments. These results are consistent with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning and inconsistent with the information-delivery theory.

17 Implications for multimedia learning The results are largely inconsistent with the information-delivery theory of multimedia learning –That two deliveries of the same information must be better than one When verbal and visual presentations are separated more than a few seconds, students perform more poorly on transfer than simultaneously.

18 Implications for multimedia learning (Conts.) Simultaneous presentations take advantage of –The dual-channel capabilities of humans –The limited capacity of each channel –The need for active cognitive processing by encouraging learners to make connections between corresponding visual and verbal representations.

19 Implications for multimedia design Present words and pictures near rather than far form each other in time. The job of designers is not only to present information. Simultaneous presentations prime the learner to build connections between corresponding visual and verbal material.


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