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Digitizing, Georeferencing and Publishing on Web of the ”Charta României Meridionale” BARTOS-ELEKES Zsombor (Babeş–Bolyai Univ. – Dept. of Geography in.

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Presentation on theme: "Digitizing, Georeferencing and Publishing on Web of the ”Charta României Meridionale” BARTOS-ELEKES Zsombor (Babeş–Bolyai Univ. – Dept. of Geography in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Digitizing, Georeferencing and Publishing on Web of the ”Charta României Meridionale” BARTOS-ELEKES Zsombor (Babeş–Bolyai Univ. – Dept. of Geography in Hungarian, Cluj, RO) IMECS Zoltán (Babeş–Bolyai Univ. – Dept. of Geography in Hungarian, Cluj, RO) MAGYARI-SÁSKA Zsolt (Babeş–Bolyai Univ. – Dept. of Geography for Extensions, Gheorgheni, RO) TIMÁR Gábor (Eötvös University – Dept. of Geophysics and Space Science, Budapest, HU) UEFISCDI / Babeş–Bolyai University PN-II-RU-TE –2014

2 Introduction: materials, methods Szathmári: Charta României Meridionale (1864) Szathmári: Charta României Meridionale (1864) –based on the Austrian topographic survey and map series from 1855–1859 –lithographed by Szathmári Pap Károly = Carol Pop de Satmari between 1860–1864 –Map of Southern Romania (1864): the first detailed topographic map of Walachia the purpose of our project: the purpose of our project: –describing the circumstances of the survey and map- making –calculating the datum and projection –finding and digitizing the copies –georeferencing and publishing on web

3 Historical background, topographical precedents Walachia Walachia –vassal state of the Ottoman Empire –occupied sometimes by the Habsburg Empire or Russian Empire First Austrian Military Survey First Austrian Military Survey –Specht 1788– 1792

4 The circumstances of the beginning of the survey 1853–1856 Crimean War 1853–1856 Crimean War –Russia occupied Moldavia and Walachia (which were under Ottoman control) –Turkey declared war to Russia –Austria occupied Walachia as a peacekeeping force (August 1854 – March 1857) –Russia was defeated, Treaty of Paris Contract on survey Contract on survey –April 1855: Austria offered the survey to Walachia –Barbu Stirbey (Prince of Walachia) agreed to it –Walachia had to pay money to Austria and would get a copy of the map made by the Austrians

5 The surveying organization (1) Militärgeographisches Institut (Austrian Institute of Military Geography) Militärgeographisches Institut (Austrian Institute of Military Geography) Second Military Survey Second Military Survey –Director: August von Fligely (1811–1879) –Geodesy: Eduard Pechmann von Maahsen, Iacob Marieni. –helped by Romanian officers: C-tin Barozzi War Archives of the Austrian State Archive (ÖStA-Kriegsarchiv), Vienna War Archives of the Austrian State Archive (ÖStA-Kriegsarchiv), Vienna

6 The surveying organization (2) leaders of work leaders of work

7 The territory and the period of the survey Walachia and parts of Dobrogea Walachia and parts of Dobrogea April 1855– September 1859 April 1855– September 1859

8 The geodetic basis (1) Fundamental point (astronomical observatory): Movila David Fundamental point (astronomical observatory): Movila David Azimuth fixed to Movila Păunei Azimuth fixed to Movila Păunei Baseline Baseline Ellipsoid: Walbeck 1821 (Zach–Oriani) Ellipsoid: Walbeck 1821 (Zach–Oriani) Prime meridian: Ferro. Prime meridian: Ferro.

9 The geodetic basis (2) Triangulation network between Black Sea and Transylvania Triangulation network between Black Sea and Transylvania

10 Projection, scale, map sheets Projection: Projection: –Cassini-Soldner –central point: Vizaknai-hegy (Dealul Sibiului) in Transylvania Scale: Scale: –1: 57,600 –1 inch on the map = 800 fathoms on terrain Map sheet: Map sheet: –16 inch x 24 inch (map) –12,800 fathom x 19,200 fathom (terrain)

11 The Austrian series 1: 57,600 (1) 112 sheets 112 sheets

12 The Austrian series 1: 57,600 (2) manuscript map (1 or 2 copy) compiled in Vienna manuscript map (1 or 2 copy) compiled in Vienna

13 Szathmári’s series 1: (1) Szathmári Pap Károly = Carol Pop de Satmari Szathmári Pap Károly = Carol Pop de Satmari –birth: Kolozsvár/Cluj (Transylvania), 1812 –invited to Walachia in 1843 –death: Bucharest (Romania), 1887 he copied the Austrian map and translated the lettering to Romanian he copied the Austrian map and translated the lettering to Romanian color lithographed map duplicated in at about 10 copies ( sheets) color lithographed map duplicated in at about 10 copies ( sheets) printed in 1864 (some sheets in Vienna, others in Bucharest) printed in 1864 (some sheets in Vienna, others in Bucharest) Austrian = red Szathmári = blue

14 Szathmári’s series 1: (2) Title sheet Title sheet

15 Szathmári’s series 1: (3) Legend (explanation of symbols) Legend (explanation of symbols)

16 Szathmári’s series 1: (4) Index map Index map

17 Szathmári’s series 1: (5) 112 map sheets 112 map sheets

18 The content of the map Relief: Lehmann-hachures Relief: Lehmann-hachures Hydrography Hydrography Vegetation Vegetation Settlements Settlements Routes Routes Borders Borders Toponyms: Latin Script Toponyms: Latin Script

19 The reduced maps (1) Austrian version Austrian version 1: 288,000 1: 288,000 Vienna, 1867 Vienna, sheets + index map 6 sheets + index map

20 The reduced maps (2) Romanian version Romanian version 1: 288,00 1: 288,00 Bucharest (Sibiu?) Bucharest (Sibiu?) 1867–1869? 1867–1869? 1 sheet 1 sheet

21 The consequences of the survey and map Historical background Historical background –1859: union of Moldavia and Walachia (United Principalities >> Romania) –1877: independence from Turkey 1858 Corps of Engeneers, developed to the Romanian Military Topographic Corporation 1858 Corps of Engeneers, developed to the Romanian Military Topographic Corporation

22 The preservation of the maps (1) Austrian version: Austrian version: –War Archives of the Austrian State Archive, Vienna –1 complete series (B III a ) –working versions –documentation of the survey

23 The preservation of the maps (2) Szathmári’s version (8 copies) Szathmári’s version (8 copies) Romania Romania –Map Collection of the Romanian Academy Library (Bucharest) [2] –Cholnoky Map Collection (Cluj-Napoca) –Cuza University (Jassy) Hungary Hungary –Map Room of Institute and Museum of Military History (Budapest) Austria Austria –War Archives of the Austrian State Archive (Vienna) [2] USA USA –Clark Library Map Collection (Ann Arbor, MI)

24 Digitization Full series in Budapest and Cluj-Napoca Full series in Budapest and Cluj-Napoca Some sheets in Vienna Some sheets in Vienna Resolution: 300 dpi (=5m/pixel) Resolution: 300 dpi (=5m/pixel)

25 Georeferencing (1) Datum, ellipsoid, projection Datum, ellipsoid, projection –Vizakna datum –Zach-Oriani ellipsoid –Cassini projection centered at Vizakna Planar coordinates Planar coordinates –terrain extents of the map sheet –labeling system Control-points Control-points –4 corners of the sheet

26 Georeferencing (2) Front image: Szathmári’s map Front image: Szathmári’s map Background image: modern topographic map Background image: modern topographic map Movila David triangulation point Movila David triangulation point

27 Georeferencing (3) Brăila and Turnu Severin – cities which had been transferred from the Ottoman Empire to Walachia with Treaty of Edirne (1829) Brăila and Turnu Severin – cities which had been transferred from the Ottoman Empire to Walachia with Treaty of Edirne (1829)

28 Georeferencing (4) Border between Habsburg Empire (Transylvania) and United Principalities Border between Habsburg Empire (Transylvania) and United Principalities –Tömösi / Predeal Pass Northern part of image: Austrian topographic map of Transylvania Northern part of image: Austrian topographic map of Transylvania Southern part of image: Szathmári’s map Southern part of image: Szathmári’s map

29 Publishing on web (1) Source of maps Source of maps

30 Publishing on web (2) Results on website: Results on website: –www.charta1864.ro w –viewer: panning (moving), zooming levels of the mosaic map –export: original map sheet, georeferenced file in contemporary projection –place name index: finding settlements –essay –visualising on Google maps

31 This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS – UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS – UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE


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