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SLIDE SHOW INSTRUCTIONS This presentation is completely under your control. This lesson will show only one step at a time, to see the next step you must press a key. to see the next step you must press a key. (Actual names written on a key are in green) TO STOP THE SLIDE SHOW: press ‘escape’ (Esc, top left of keyboard) TO MOVE FORWARD: press the “spacebar” or Enter (PageDn, , , also work) TO MOVE BACKWARD: press the key (PageUp, or also work)

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Factors & Multiples Prime numbers & Prime Factorization Copyright©2001 Lynda Greene

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Prime Numbers Copyright©2001 Lynda Greene

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Before we learn to find the Prime Factors of a number, we need to know what a Prime Number is x 21 x 31 x 4 2 x 2 1 x 51 x 6 2 x 3 1 x 7 These two numbers (4 and 6) have more than one set of factors, so they are called “composite numbers” The other numbers (2, 3, 5, and 7) have only one set of factors each, the number one (1) and the number itself. This means that 2, 3, 5, and 7 are Prime Numbers! Copyright©2001 Lynda Greene A Prime Number is a number that has only two FACTORS (numbers that will divide evenly with no remainders) These two factors are the original number and the number 1. Examples: Let’s look at the factors of several numbers.

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To find the Prime Factorization of any number, you must divide over and over by bigger and bigger prime numbers. But before you can do that, you need to know which numbers are prime. Here is a list of the first 25 prime numbers. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97 Memorizing tip #1: Look at the last digits in the middle two rows, they are almost exactly the same. (3 rd row: last number changed, 4 th row: has a number missing) Memorizing tip #2: 2 primes in the 20’s, 2 in the 30’s, 3 in the 40’s, (then it repeats) 2 in the 50’s, 2 in the 60’s, 3 in the 70’s, (starts to repeat again) 2 in the 80’s Grouping Pattern: two two three 20’s 30’s 40’s 50’s 60’s 70’s 80’s...pattern breaks down One way to do this is to have a list of prime numbers that you can refer to, but the easiest way (in the long run) is to memorize the prime numbers. (It helps to know your Prime Numbers later when you learn to reduce fractions, simplify square roots and factor polynomials) Copyright©2001 Lynda Greene

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Practice Problems: (Hit enter to see the answers) Label each number below as prime, composite or neither 1) 73 5) 51 2) 87 6) 23 3) 77 7) 2 4) 29 8) 1 Answers: 1) prime 2) composite 3) composite 4) prime 5) composite 6) prime 7) prime 8) neither Copyright©2001 Lynda Greene

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Prime Factorization Copyright©2001 Lynda Greene

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Prime Factorization: Breaking a number up into the smallest possible pieces. These pieces are called “prime factors” and they are a group of “prime numbers” that when multiplied together are equal to the original number. Example: The prime factorization for 72 is: 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 or (2 3 x 3 2 ) These expressions multiply together to give you 72 and 2 and 3 are both prime numbers. Copyright©2001 Lynda Greene

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Here is a list of the first 25 prime numbers. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97 Example: Find the Prime Factorization for the number 36 General Steps: 1)Divide the number by 2 (since 2 is the first prime number in the prime number list) 2)Divide the answer by 2 *Keep using 2 until it doesn’t divide evenly anymore* 3) Divide by 3, until it doesn’t divide evenly 4)Divide by 5, 7, 11,... (each of the prime numbers) STOP ! when you get a Prime Number on the bottom. 36 Note: Many teachers insist on using this upside-down division symbol for Prime Factorization, but it is still plain old division, just write the answer underneath instead of on top. 18 ) ) ) 2 3 Divide by 2 Divide by 3 Prime Number STOP! Can’t divide by 2 anymore, go to next Prime Number (3) The answer is made up of the prime numbers on the outside of the division symbols. They must be written with multiplication signs between them. ANSWER: 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 or 2 2 x 3 2 Check: 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 = 36 You will get the original number back if your answer is correct. Copyright©2001 Lynda Greene

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List of prime numbers. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97 Example: Find the Prime Factorization for the number 42 Divide 42 by 2, then divide the answers by 2 until they won’t divide evenly anymore, then divide by the next prime number (3, 5, 7, 11,...). Stop when you get a Prime Number on the bottom ) 7 2 ) 3 Divide by 2 Divide by 3 ANSWER: 2 x 3 x 7 Check your answer, 2 x 3 x 7=42 Can’t divide by 2 anymore, go to next Prime Number (3) Prime Number STOP! Copyright©2001 Lynda Greene

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List of prime numbers. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97 Example: Find the Prime Factorization for the number ) 21 2 ) 3 Divide by 2 Divide by 3 ANSWER: 2 x 3 x 3 x 7 or 2 x 3 2 x 7 Check your answer, 2 x 3 x 3 x 7 = 126 Can’t divide by 2 anymore, go to next Prime Number (3) Prime Number STOP! ) Divide by Copyright©2001 Lynda Greene

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List of prime numbers. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97 Example: Find the Prime Factorization for the number ) Divide by 2 ANSWER: 2 x 2 x 5 x 11 Check your answer, 2 x 2 x 5 x 11 = 220 Can’t divide by 2 anymore, go to next Prime Number (3) Prime Number STOP! ) Divide by Can’t divide by 3 either, go to next Prime Number (5) 110 ) Copyright©2001 Lynda Greene

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List of prime numbers. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97 Example: Find the Prime Factorization for the number ) 3 7 Divide by 3 Divide by 7 ANSWER: 3 x 7 x 13 Check your answer, 3 x 7 x 13 = 273 Can’t divide by 2 at all, go to next Prime Number (3) Prime Number STOP! 13 Can’t divide by 3 anymore, go to next Prime Number (5) 91 ) Can’t divide by 5 either, go to next Prime Number (7) Copyright©2001 Lynda Greene

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Practice Problems: (Hit enter to see the answers) Find the prime factorization for the following numbers 1)105 2) 72 3)225 4) 135 5)90 6) 63 7) 154 8) 3234 Answers: 1) 3 x 5 x 7 2) 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 3) 3 x 3 x 5 x 5 4) 3 x 3 x 3 x 5 5) 2 x 3 x 3 x 5 6) 3 x 3 x 7 7) 2 x 7 x 11 8) 2 x 3 x 7 x 7 x 11 Copyright©2001 Lynda Greene

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End of Tutorial Go to for more great math tutorials for your home computer Questions? send to: Copyright©2001 Lynda Greene

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