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Synchronizing Words and Carefully Synchronizing Words Pavel Martyugin Ural State University, Ekaterinburg, Russia Workshop Dynamical Aspects of Automata and Semigroup Theories, 25-26 November 2010, Wien, Austria

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a, a b a b 1 23 4 b b a The example of a synchronizing DFA with 4 states and 2 letters.

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This conjecture is unproved.

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Computation problems: Is a given DFA synchronizing or not? What is the length of the shortest synchronizing word for a given DFA?

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D.Eppstein(1990) The problem BOUNDED SYN is NP-complete. This problem remains NP-complete for automata over a 2-letter alphabet.

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J.Olschewski, M.Ummels (2010) The problem MIN SYN is complete for the complexity class DP

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The Černý’s problem and the complexities problems can be considered for some special cases of DFA. We consider here classes of cyclical, Eulerian, monotonic, cyclically monotonic, commutative DFA and DFA with a zero state.

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0 1 2 0 3 n-1 n-2

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In the previous example the input alphabet size grows with number of states, while in the Černý example the alphabet has two elements for every number of states. 0

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~ (2008) The problem BOUNDED SYN is NP-complete for cyclical and one-cluster DFA

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The DFA is called Eulerian if its digraph is Eulerian. ~ (2008) The problem BOUNDED SYN is NP-complete for Eulerian DFA

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~ (2008) The problem BOUNDED SYN is NP-complete for the class of all commutative DFA

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If the PFA is a DFA then careful synchronization = synchronization

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The example of a carefully synchronizing PFA with 4 states and 2 letters. a,b a b 1 23 4 b b a

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0 1 2

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The lengths of cycles are consecutive prime numbers The shortest carefully synchronizing word has nonpolynomial length.

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The lengths of blocks are consecutive prime numbers

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~ (2010) The problem CARSIN is PSPACE-complete The problem CARSIN remain PSPACE-complete for automata with 2-letter alphabet

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Thank you!

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