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Preview Warm Up California Standards Lesson Presentation

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**Warm Up 1. 50, 6 2. 105, 7 3. List the factors of 28. no yes**

1. 50, , 7 3. List the factors of 28. Tell whether each number is prime or composite. If the number is composite, write it as the product of two numbers. Tell whether the second number is a factor of the first number. no yes ±1, ±2, ±4, ±7, ±14, ±28 4. 11 prime 5. 98 composite; 49 2

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California Standards Preparation for 11.0 Students apply basic factoring techniques to second- and simple third degree-polynomials. These techniques include finding a common factor for all terms in a polynomial, recognizing the difference of two squares, and recognizing perfect squares of binomials.

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Vocabulary prime factorization greatest common factor

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The numbers that are multiplied to find a product are called factors of that product. A number is divisible by its factors. Remember that a prime number is a whole number that has exactly two positive factors, itself and 1. The number 1 is not prime because it has only one factor. You can use the factors of a number to write the number as a product. The number 12 can be factored several ways.

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Factorizations of 12 1 12 2 6 3 4 The order of factors does not change the product, but there is only one example that cannot be factored further. The circled factorization is the prime factorization because all the factors are prime numbers. The prime factors can be written in any order, and except for changes in the order, there is only one way to write the prime factorization of a number.

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**Additional Example 1: Writing Prime Factorizations**

Write the prime factorization of 98. Method 1 Factor tree Method 2 Ladder diagram Choose any two factors of 98 to begin. Keep finding factors until each branch ends in a prime factor. Choose a prime factor of 98 to begin. Keep dividing by prime factors until the quotient is 1. 98 98 49 7 1 2 98 = 98 = The prime factorization of 98 is 2 7 7 or 2 72.

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Check It Out! Example 1 Write the prime factorization of each number. a. 40 b. 33 40 2 5 33 3 11 40 = 23 5 33 = 3 11 The prime factorization of 40 is 2 2 2 5 or 23 5. The prime factorization of 33 is 3 11.

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Check It Out! Example 1 Write the prime factorization of each number. c. 49 d. 19 49 19 1 49 = 7 7 19 = 1 19 The prime factorization of 49 is 7 7 or 72. The prime factorization of 19 is 1 19.

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Factors that are shared by two or more whole numbers are called common factors. The greatest of these common factors is called the greatest common factor, or GCF. Factors of 12: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 Factors of 32: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 Common factors: 1, 2, 4 The greatest of the common factors is 4.

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**Additional Example 2A: Finding the GCF of Numbers**

Find the GCF of the pair of numbers. 100 and 60 Method 1 List the factors. factors of 100: 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100 List all the factors. factors of 60: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30, 60 Circle the GCF. The GCF of 100 and 60 is 20.

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**Additional Example 2B: Finding the GCF of Numbers**

Find the GCF of the pair of numbers. 26 and 52 Method 2 Prime factorization. Write the prime factorization of each number. 26 = 13 52 = 2 2 13 Align the common factors. 2 13 = 26 The GCF of 26 and 52 is 26.

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Check It Out! Example 2a Find the GCF of the pair of numbers. 12 and 16 Method 1 List the factors. factors of 12: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 List all the factors. factors of 16: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 Circle the GCF. The GCF of 12 and 16 is 4.

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Check It Out! Example 2b Find the GCF of the pair of numbers. 15 and 25 Method 2 Prime factorization. Write the prime factorization of each number. 15 = 3 5 25 = 5 5 Align the common factors. 5 The GCF of 15 and 25 is 5.

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**You can also find the GCF of monomials that include variables**

You can also find the GCF of monomials that include variables. To find the GCF of monomials, write the prime factorization of each coefficient and write all powers of variables as products. Then find the product of the common factors.

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**Additional Example 3A: Finding the GCF of Monomials**

Find the GCF of each pair of monomials. 15x3 and 9x2 Write the prime factorization of each coefficient and write powers as products. 15x3 = 3 5 x x x 9x2 = 3 3 x x Align the common factors. 3 x x = 3x2 Find the product of the common factors. The GCF of 15x3 and 9x2 is 3x2.

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**Additional Example 3B: Finding the GCF of Monomials**

Find the GCF of each pair of monomials. 8x2 and 7y3 Write the prime factorization of each coefficient and write powers as products. 8x2 = 2 2 2 x x 7y3 = y y y Align the common factors. There are no common factors other than 1. The GCF 8x2 and 7y3 is 1.

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If two terms contain the same variable raised to different powers, the GCF will contain that variable raised to the lower power. Helpful Hint

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Check It Out! Example 3a Find the GCF of each pair of monomials. 18g2 and 27g3 Write the prime factorization of each coefficient and write powers as products. 18g2 = 2 3 3 g g 27g3 = 3 3 g g g Align the common factors. 3 3 g g Find the product of the common factors. The GCF of 18g2 and 27g3 is 9g2.

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**Find the GCF of each pair of monomials.**

Check It Out! Example 3b Find the GCF of each pair of monomials. Write the prime factorization of each coefficient and write powers as products. 16a6 and 9b 16a6 = 2 2 2 2 a a a a a a 9b = 3 b Align the common factors. The GCF of 16a6 and 9b is 1. There are no common factors other than 1.

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Check It Out! Example 3c Find the GCF of each pair of monomials. 8x and 7v2 Write the prime factorization of each coefficient and write powers as products. 8x = 2 2 2 x 7v2 = v v Align the common factors. There are no common factors other than 1. The GCF of 8x and 7v2 is 1.

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**Additional Example 4: Application**

A cafeteria has 18 chocolate-milk cartons and 24 regular-milk cartons. The cook wants to arrange the cartons with the same number of cartons in each row. Chocolate and regular milk will not be in the same row. How many rows will there be if the cook puts the greatest possible number of cartons in each row? The 18 chocolate and 24 regular milk cartons must be divided into groups of equal size. The number of cartons in each row must be a common factor of 18 and 24.

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**Additional Example 4 Continued**

Find the common factors of 18 and 24. Factors of 18: 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18 Factors of 24: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 The GCF of 18 and 24 is 6. The greatest possible number of milk cartons in each row is 6. Find the number of rows of each type of milk when the cook puts the greatest number of cartons in each row.

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**Additional Example 4 Continued**

18 chocolate milk cartons 6 containers per row = 3 rows 24 regular milk cartons = 4 rows When the greatest possible number of types of milk is in each row, there are 7 rows in total.

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Check It Out! Example 4 Adrianne is shopping for a CD storage unit. She has 36 CDs by pop music artists and 48 CDs by country music artists. She wants to put the same number of CDs on each shelf without putting pop music and country music CDs on the same shelf. If Adrianne puts the greatest possible number of CDs on each shelf, how many shelves does her storage unit need? The 36 pop and 48 country CDs must be divided into groups of equal size. The number of CDs in each row must be a common factor of 36 and 48.

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**Check It Out! Example 4 Continued**

Find the common factors of 36 and 48. Factors of 36: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36 Factors of 48: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48 The GCF of 36 and 48 is 12. The greatest possible number of CDs on each shelf is 12. Find the number of shelves of each type of CD when Adrianne puts the greatest number of CDs on each shelf.

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36 pop CDs 12 CDs per shelf = 3 shelves 48 country CDs = 4 shelves When the greatest possible number of CD types are on each shelf, there are 7 shelves in total.

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Lesson Quiz: Part I Write the prime factorization of each number. 1. 50 2. 84 Find the GCF of each pair of numbers. 3. 18 and 75 4. 20 and 36 2 52 22 3 7 3 4

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Lesson Quiz: Part II Find the GCF each pair of monomials. 5. 12x and 28x3 6. 27x2 and 45x3y2 7. Cindi is planting a rectangular flower bed with 40 orange flowers and 28 yellow flowers. She wants to plant them so that each row will have the same number of plants but of only one color. How many rows will Cindi need if she puts the greatest possible number of plants in each row? 4x 9x2 17

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