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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA Receiver Sender Eavesdroppe r 175753411947 p q p q p q p and q prime

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA Receiver Sender Eavesdroppe r 175753411947 p q p q p q p and q prime Compute numbers n = p*q 2337 323 2491

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA Receiver Sender Eavesdroppe r 175753411947 p q p q p q p and q prime Choose e prime relative to (p-1)(q-1) 2337 323 2491 43 23 41

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA Receiver Sender Eavesdroppe r 175753411947 p q p q p q p and q prime Publish pair as the public key 2337 323 2491 43 23 41

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA Receiver Sender Eavesdroppe r 175753411947 p q p q p q p and q prime Find d such that (e*d -1) is divisible by (p-1)(q-1) 263 323 2491 43 23 41 16672337 2217

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA Receiver Sender Eavesdroppe r 175753411947 p q p q p q p and q prime Keep as the private key 263 323 2491 43 23 41 16672337 2217

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA Receiver Sender Eavesdroppe r Toss p and q 263 323 2491 43 23 41 16672337 2217

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA Receiver Sender Eavesdroppe r 263 323 2491 43 23 41 16672337 2217 m mod 2337 43

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA Receiver Sender Eavesdroppe r 263 323 2491 43 23 41 16672337 2217 m mod 2337 43 ( ) 1667 mod 2337

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA, signing Receiver Sender Eavesdroppe r 263 323 2491 43 23 41 16672337 2217 m mod 2337 263

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA, signing Receiver Sender Eavesdroppe r 263 323 2491 43 23 41 16672337 2217 m mod 2337 263 ( ) 23 mod 2337

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA, exponentiating 25663 55637 mod 78837

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA, exponentiating 25663 55637 mod 78837 Yikes!

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA, exponentiating 25663 55637 mod 78837 25663 2 2 mod 78837... That is, do the modular reduction after each multiplication.

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA, find primes 2 Probability that a random number n is prime: 1/ln(n) For 100 digit number this is 1/230.

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA, find primes 2 Probability that a random number n is prime: 1/ln(n) For 100 digit number this is 1/230. But how to test for being prime?

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA, find primes 2 Probability that a random number n is prime: 1/ln(n) For 100 digit number this is 1/230. But how to test for being prime? If p is prime and 0 < a < p, then a p-1 = 1 mod p Ex: 3 (5-1) = 81 = 1 mod 5 36 (29-1) = 37711171281396032013366321198900157303750656 = 1 mod 29

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA, find primes 2 Probability that a random number n is prime: 1/ln(n) For 100 digit number this is 1/230. But how to test for being prime? If p is prime and 0 < a < p, then a p-1 = 1 mod p Ex: 3 (5-1) = 81 = 1 mod 5 36 (29-1) = 37711171281396032013366321198900157303750656 = 1 mod 29 Pr(p isn't prime but a p-1 = 1 mod p) = 1/1000000000000000

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA, find primes Can always express a number n-1 as 2 b c for some odd number c. ex: 48 = 2 4 3 Then can compute a n-1 mod n by computing a c mod n and squaring the result b times. If the result is not 1 then n is not prime.

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA, find primes Choose a random odd integer p to test. Calculate b = # times 2 divides p-1. Calculate m such that p = 1 + 2 m. Choose a random integer a such that 0 < a < p. If a ≡ 1 mod p || a ≡ -1 mod p, for some 0 ≤ j≤b-1, then p passes the test. A prime will pass the test for all a. b m 2 m j

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA, find primes Choose a random odd integer p to test. Calculate b = # times 2 divides p-1. Calculate m such that p = 1 + 2 m. Choose a random integer a such that 0 < a < p. If a ≡ 1 mod p || a ≡ -1 mod p, for some 0 ≤ j≤b-1, then p passes the test. A prime will pass the test for all a. A non prime number passes the test for at most 1/4 of all possible a. So, repeat N times and probability of error is (1/4). b m 2 m j N

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Public Key Cryptosystems - RSA, picking d and e Choose e first, then find p and q so (p-1) and (q-1) are relatively prime to e RSA is no less secure if e is always the same and small Popular values for e are 3 and 65537 For e = 3, though, must pad message or else ciphertext = plaintext Choose p ≡ 2 mod 3 so p-1 = 1 mod 3 So, choose random odd number, multiply by 3 and add 2, then test for primality Or, start with any random number, multiply by 6 and add 5

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