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Chapter 3 Fractions

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**Factors and Simplest Form**

3.2 Factors and Simplest Form

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**Finding the Factors of Numbers**

To perform many operations, it is necessary to be able to factor a number. Since 7 · 9 = 63, both 7 and 9 are factors of 63, and 7 · 9 is called a factorization of 63. Objective A 3

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**Prime and Composite Numbers**

Prime Numbers A prime number is a natural number that has exactly two different factors 1 and itself. Composite Numbers A composite number is any natural number, other than 1, that is not prime. Objective A 4

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Examples Determine whether each number is prime or composite. Explain your answers. a. 16 b. 31 c. 49 Composite, it has more than two factors: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16. Prime, its only factors are 1 and 31. Objective A Composite, it has more than two factors: 1, 7, 49. 5

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**Prime Factorization Prime Factorization**

The prime factorization of a number is the factorization in which all the factors are prime numbers. Every whole number greater than 1 has exactly one prime factorization. Objective A 6

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**Examples Find the prime factorization of 30.**

Write 30 as the product of two numbers. Continue until all factors are prime. 30 • 3 • • 5 The prime factorization of 30 is 2 · 3 · 5. Objective A 7

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**Examples Find the prime factorization of 36.**

Write 36 as the product of two numbers. Continue until all factors are prime. 36 • 3 • • 2 The prime factorization of 36 is 3 · 3 · 2 · 2 or 32 · 22. Objective A 8

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Divisibility Tests Objective A 9

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**Examples Find the prime factorization of 63.**

The first prime number 2 does not divide evenly, but 3 does. Because 21 is not prime, we divide again. The quotient 7 is prime, so we are finished. The prime factorization of 63 is 3 · 3 · 7. Objective A 10

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**Writing Fractions in Simplest Form**

Fractions that represent the same portion of a whole are called equivalent fractions. There are many equivalent forms of a fraction. A special form of a fraction is called simplest form. Simplest Form of a Fraction A fraction is written in simplest form or lowest terms when the numerator and denominator have no common factors other than 1. Objective A 11

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Examples Write in simplest form. a. b. c. Objective A 12

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**Simplest Form Writing a Fraction in Simplest Form**

To write a fraction in simplest form, write the prime factorization of the numerator and the denominator and then divide both by all common factors. Objective A 13

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Examples Write in simplest form. a. b. c. Objective A 14

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**Example Determine whether are equivalent. Simplify each fraction.**

Since both of the simplified fractions are the same, they are equivalent. Objective A 15

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Equality of Fractions Objective A 16

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**Example Determine whether are equivalent by cross multiplying.**

Objective A Since 22 ≠20, then 17

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**Solving Problems by Writing Fractions in Simplest Form**

EXAMPLE There are 5280 feet in a mile. What fraction of a mile is represented by 2640. Both 2640 and 5280 have a common factor of 2640. Objective C The fraction of a mile represented by 2640 is

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Factors and Simplest Form Section 4.2 b A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 whose only factors are 1 and itself. The first few prime numbers.

Factors and Simplest Form Section 4.2 b A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 whose only factors are 1 and itself. The first few prime numbers.

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