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The Prime Movers Temperature in Thermal Systems

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I.Thermal Energy The total energy of the thermal motion of all the particles that make up an object

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II.Temperature A. “hotness” B. The average kinetic energy of the random motion of the atoms and molecules in a body

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III. Measuring Temperature A. Thermometer—uses expansion and contraction of a liquid to measure temperature B. Thermal equilibrium—when temperatures become equal because of energy flow from a substance with higher temp. to a substance with lower temp.

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C. Celsius—freezing point of water is 0°C; boiling point is 100°C D. Fahrenheit--freezing point of water is 32°F; boiling point is 212°F E. T C = 5/9 (T F -32) F. T F = 9/5 T C +32

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IV. Heat A. Conduction—thermal energy flows from hotter object to cooler object by colliding particles— TOUCH B. Heat—energy that flows because of a temperature difference C. Temperature Difference is the prime mover in thermal systems

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V.Specific Heat A. Units 1. joule—SI 2. calorie—amount of thermal energy it takes to change the temp. of 1g of water by 1° C 3. Btu—amount of thermal energy it takes to change the temp. of 1 lb of water by 1° F

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B. Specific heat—amount of energy that must be added to raise the temp of a unit mass of the substance one temp. unit—based on water as 1 1. Q = mCΔT 2. transferred heat = mass x specific heat x change in temp

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C. Change of State 1. boiling point—temp needed to change a liquid to a gas 2. heat of fusion—amount of energy needed to melt one gram of a solid 3. heat of vaporization—the amount of energy needed to vaporize one gram of a liquid

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4. Q = mH f —amount of heat needed to melt a solid heat = mass x heat of fusion 5. Q = mH v —amount of heat needed to vaporize a liquid heat = mass x heat of vaporization

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Calorie (energy) Calculations A calorie is defined as the amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius.

Calorie (energy) Calculations A calorie is defined as the amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius.

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