# The Prime Movers Temperature in Thermal Systems. I.Thermal Energy  The total energy of the thermal motion of all the particles that make up an object.

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The Prime Movers Temperature in Thermal Systems

I.Thermal Energy  The total energy of the thermal motion of all the particles that make up an object

II.Temperature A. “hotness” B. The average kinetic energy of the random motion of the atoms and molecules in a body

III. Measuring Temperature A. Thermometer—uses expansion and contraction of a liquid to measure temperature B. Thermal equilibrium—when temperatures become equal because of energy flow from a substance with higher temp. to a substance with lower temp.

C. Celsius—freezing point of water is 0°C; boiling point is 100°C D. Fahrenheit--freezing point of water is 32°F; boiling point is 212°F E. T C = 5/9 (T F -32) F. T F = 9/5 T C +32

IV. Heat A. Conduction—thermal energy flows from hotter object to cooler object by colliding particles— TOUCH B. Heat—energy that flows because of a temperature difference C. Temperature Difference is the prime mover in thermal systems

V.Specific Heat A. Units 1. joule—SI 2. calorie—amount of thermal energy it takes to change the temp. of 1g of water by 1° C 3. Btu—amount of thermal energy it takes to change the temp. of 1 lb of water by 1° F

B. Specific heat—amount of energy that must be added to raise the temp of a unit mass of the substance one temp. unit—based on water as 1 1. Q = mCΔT 2. transferred heat = mass x specific heat x change in temp

C. Change of State 1. boiling point—temp needed to change a liquid to a gas 2. heat of fusion—amount of energy needed to melt one gram of a solid 3. heat of vaporization—the amount of energy needed to vaporize one gram of a liquid

4. Q = mH f —amount of heat needed to melt a solid heat = mass x heat of fusion 5. Q = mH v —amount of heat needed to vaporize a liquid heat = mass x heat of vaporization

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