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National Disaster System & Laws in Pakistan

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Presentation on theme: "National Disaster System & Laws in Pakistan"— Presentation transcript:

1 National Disaster System & Laws in Pakistan
By Nadeem Ahmed Abro NDMA, 12th Oct’ 2011 1

2 My Country History Administrative Division 170 Million people Religion
97% Muslims, (77 % Sunni, 20% Shi'a), Others 3% Parliamentary Democracy Economy US$1200 Per capita Income GDP Size is approximately over US$165 Billion


4 Pakistan’s Disaster Context Diverse topographical features

5 Pakistan’s Disaster Context
Climatic variations from tropical to temperate with rainfall as little as less than 1˝ to over 150˝ a year 5

6 Pakistan’s Disaster Context
Uneven population density 6

7 Pakistan’s Disaster Context
Unplanned development in hazard prone areas 7

8 Pakistan’s Disaster Context
Poverty feeds into vulnerability 8

9 Pakistan’s Disaster Context
Pressure on national resources 9

10 Hazards and Disaster 10

11 Hazards in Pakistan Natural Droughts Earthquakes Floods Tsunami
Avalanches Landslides Cyclones/Storms Glacial Lake Outbursts Human Induced Transport Accidents Oil Spills Urban Fires Internal Displacements Industrial Accidents 11


13 Genesis of System Calamity Act 1958 existed in Pakistan which was mainly concerned with reactive emergency response Emergency Relief Cell (ERC) Relief Commissioner Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) World Conference on Disaster Reduction ( Jan 05, Japan) adopted Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) HFA recognized “Disaster Risk Management” as an important element for achieving internationally agreed goals Pakistan, along with 168 other nations, is a signatory to the HFA 13

14 Genesis of System EQ Incapacities of existing system came to fore Reactive approach - Relief oriented Lack of coordination and centralized control Law not all encompassing National Disaster Management Ordinance, promulgated in Dec 2006, which was later on passed by the Parliament as National Disaster Management Act-2010. The NDMA is in the process of formulating the Disaster Management Rules under the NDM Act, 2010. 14

15 Institutionalize Structure

16 Stake Holders 16

17 New System - Features Paradigm shift (reactive to proactive approach)
One window operation Centralized planning and decentralized execution Disaster management - devolved subject Directly responsible to political leadership Ownership Dedicated resources Powerful law Deals all four spectrums of disaster management 17

18 Disaster Management Spectrum
Reconstruction Response Recovery & Rehabilitation Mitigation & Preparedness DM Spectrum 18

19 Functions and Responsibilities

20 NDMA’s Mandate To act as the implementing, coordinating and monitoring body for disaster management (Article 9 of NDM Act 2010) 20

21 NDMA’s Mandate - Disaster Management
Managing the complete disaster spectrum, including Preparedness; Response; Recovery and Rehabilitation; and Reconstruction (Article 2.c of NDM Act 2010)

22 Functions - NDMA Act as the implementing, coordinating and monitoring body for disaster management Implement, coordinate and monitor the implementation of the National policy Lay down guidelines for preparing disaster management plans by different Ministries or Departments and the Provincial Authorities Provide necessary technical assistance to Provinces for preparing their disaster management plans 22

23 Functions - NDMA Coordination with the United Nations agencies, international organizations and governments of foreign countries Establish institutions for research, training, and developmental programmes in the field of disaster management Extend such support to other countries affected by major disaster as it may deem appropriate 23

24 Organization Structure
Chairman Staff Officer Strategic Plan Unit Member Disaster Risk Reduction Member Operations Member Support & Services Disaster Risk Reduction-1 Response Coordination and Information Management Disaster Risk Reduction-2 Recovery & Re-habitation IT Sectoral Specialists Logistic Admin & Procurement Project Units National Operation Center Finance 24

25 DM Organization Structure
Line Ministries/ Division UN/ Donors Humanitarian Media Implementation Partners Local Representatives Line Deptts PDMA/ FDMA SDMA/GBDMA ICT DMC DDMA NDMA (NEOC) NDMC Div (DDMC) Corps (CDMC) JSHQ GHQ NHQ AHQ 25

26 Institutional Arrangements
Enactment of National Disaster Management Act 2010 which provide for following institutional arrangements Disaster Management Commissions at National (NDMC) and Provincial/regional levels (PDMC) Disaster Management Authorities at National (NDMA), Provincial/regional (PDMA) and District (DDMA) level National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) National Disaster Management Fund (NDMF) National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) 26

27 Institutional Arrangements
National Disaster Risk Management Framework (NDMRF) Developed through an extensive consultative process involving all stakeholders and approved by NDMC on 5 March, 2007 Framework identified following NINE PRIORITY areas for national capacity development Institution and legal arrangements for DRM Hazard and vulnerability assessment Training, education and awareness Disaster risk management planning 27

28 Institutional Arrangements
Community and local level programming Multi hazard early warning system Mainstreaming DRR into development Emergency response system Capacity development for post disaster recovery 28

29 Why DRR Important for Pakistan
Pakistan a disaster prone country – compounded by frequency and nature of disaster Erosion of Economic Growth and Social Capital Unsustainable Development – Pakistan a developing country with emphasis on infrastructure development Difficult to achieve Poverty Reduction Goals 5 Years Since then: 2 Cyclones 2 Floods 2 Earthquakes 2 Land Slides 1 Complex Emergency 29

30 Why DRR Important for Pakistan
Source: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) – Annual Disasters Statistical Review 2006, Brussels, May 2007

31 Why DRR Important for Pakistan
Source: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) – Annual Disasters Statistical Review 2006

32 Progress Under New System of DM
National Risk Assessment National hazard and risk assessment Being carried out - Will serve as key baseline document for DRR planning at the national/provincial/local level Assessment expected to be completed by end 2012 Pilot project of Hazard, Livelihood and Vulnerability (HLV) baseline assessment completed in 10 districts EQ risk assessments completed in Muzaffarabad, Mansehra, Murree, Quetta & Chitral. Exercise aimed at integrating EQ vulnerability reduction into development plans and schemes Risk assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Flooding (GLOF) completed in Gilgit district of Gilgit-Baltistan 32

33 Progress Under New System of DM
Training, Education & Awareness Specialized training courses organized on Flood/ EQ/Drought/Coastal Hazards Mitigation, DRR Mainstreaming and Disaster Risk Communication Trainings for professionals for EQ resistant housing conducted Following knowledge products/ training manuals developed and disseminated Guidelines for earthquake safer construction Seismic retrofitting manual for buildings Seismic hazard assessment Disaster reporting manual 33

34 Progress Under New System of DM
Training, Education & Awareness Earthquake mitigation manual Drought mitigation manual Flood mitigation manual Cyclone mitigation manual DRR mainstreaming manual Disaster risk management manual School safety material on DRM 34

35 Progress Under New System of DM
Promoting Disaster Risk Management Planning Five Provincial/State, National Disaster Response Plan and thirty District DRM plans prepared Contingency plans developed: Monsoon Winter Marine Industrial and Chemical disasters Cyclone Draft Tsunami Contingency Plan ready for consultations 35

36 Progress Under New System of DM
Community & Local Level DRR Programming Provision of technical human resource to all PDMAs and DRM Coordinators to 29 most vulnerable DDMAs Key CBDRM activities include DRM network for disaster response formulated in 11 districts Tsunami evacuation drills in costal areas of Balochistan and Sindh provinces Draft action plan for school safety for Sindh and Balochistan developed Union council level DRM for pilot union councils developed 36

37 Progress Under DRM Multi-hazard Early warning System
Disease Early Warning System (DEWS) established in 48 districts Tsunami early warning system established and tide gauges installed; Training for seismic data collection and tide gauge maintenance also imparted Drought early warning system and mitigation projects implemented in Tharparkar District Indigenous knowledge based early warning indicators for drought developed 37

38 Progress Under DRM Mainstreaming DRR into Development
The initiative is currently on-going in following ten ministries: Planning Commission of Pakistan Ministry of Housing and Works Ministry of Water and Power Ministry of Industries and Production Ministry of Defense Ministry of Communication Ministry of Environment (Devolved) Ministry of Food and Agriculture (Devolved) Ministry of Education (Devolved) Ministry of Health (Devolved) 38

39 Progress Under DRM Mainstreaming DRR into Development
A chapter on DRR by the Planning Commission of Pakistan. The proposed chapter will be made part of the five years development plan after consensus by provincial authorities Under this component, guidelines on DRR for preparation of development project proposals (Infrastructure, Social and Production Sectors) have been prepared & circulated Seismic concerns have been mainstreamed into the curricula of Civil Engineering Diploma 39

40 Progress Under DRM Emergency Response System US&R Team
Three teams formed (CDA, City District Government Karachi and Pak Army) Two are planned to be raised (Chitral and GB) Programme for Enhancement of Emergency Response (PEER), Phase III has been started 26 District Disaster Resource Centers (DDRCs) have been established in most vulnerable districts DRM training being imparted to doctors and paramedical staff 40

41 Progress Under DRM Capacity Development for Post Disaster Recovery
Strategic Planning Unit (SPU) of NDMA currently providing technical backstopping to all involved in post-flood early recovery activities SPU’s Sectoral experts have produced the following documents Pak Flood and Early Recovery Response Plan 2010 Sectoral strategies on Agriculture, Community Restoration, WASH, Shelter, Education, Health and Information Management and Monitoring Early Recovery Strategic Framework and Gap Analysis Re-construction related outputs 41

42 Bilateral/Regional Initiative
SAARC Natural Disaster Rapid Response Mechanism being devised South Asian Disaster knowledge network (web based portal) China Joint Pak-China Flood Management Mechanism Cooperation in Disaster Management Australia Expansion of CBDRM programme Support to NIDM 42

43 Bilateral/Regional Initiative
Tripartite (Pakistan-Afghanistan-Turkey) cooperation in disaster management Cooperation with ADPC on DRM UNISDR regional initiative on one million safer school Expansion of CBDRM programme through World Bank Capacity building programme through JICA Cooperation with IFRC on mainstreaming IDRL guidelines through Rules under NDM Act, 2010. 43

44 Disaster Response Floods 2007 - Sindh and Balochistan
Flash Floods NWFP Earthquake Balochistan (Ziarat) Food Crisis 2008 Land Slide Attabad (Hunza, GB) Avalanches Kohistan Kyrgyzstan Operation (Pak Students) - June 2010 Tropical Cyclone (Phat) Balochistan and Sindh Air Blue Crash July 2010 Floods 2010 Floods 2011 (in progress) 44


46 Thank You



49 Hazards in Pakistan Predictable Floods Droughts Tsunami
Cyclones/Storms Un-Predictable Earthquakes Avalanches Landslides Glacial Lake Outbursts Accidents of all types 49

50 Analysis of Natural Disasters in Pakistan (1987-2006)
# Disaster Type People Homeless People Killed People Injured People affected Total affected Total Damage 000$ % Ranking 1 Wind Storm 22,597 11,654 1,183 1,057,000 1,080,780 4,100 2 6 Earth-quake 2,853,585 142,812 88,096 1,294,429 4,236,110 5,019,255 8 3 Flood 8,927,685 11,702 1,262 38,669,447 47,598,394 2,746,030 86 4 Land Slides 3,100 384 114 200 3,414 - 7 5 Famine 300,000 Epidemic 283 211 16,275 16,486 Extreme Temp 1,406 324 250 574 Drought 223 2,269,300 2,47,000 Total 11,806,967 168,464 91,190 43,606,901 55,505,058 8,016,385 Flood 2010 1,744,471 1,984 2,946 20,184,550 10,000,000

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