Presentation on theme: "MUNDY - 2009 Prime Ministers of Canada. John A. MACDONALD Prime Minister 1867 – 1873; Also 1878 – 1891 Party: CONSERVATIVE Background: Lawyer Rise to."— Presentation transcript:
MUNDY Prime Ministers of Canada
John A. MACDONALD Prime Minister 1867 – 1873; Also 1878 – 1891 Party: CONSERVATIVE Background: Lawyer Rise to Power: Ran Canada East-West government from 1840’s to Confederation (as Minister of Justice)
John A. MACDONALD Issues during term: Pacific Scandal – took bribes from U.S. Railway barons in return for campaign funds Confederation – undertook and led 3 conferences National Policy - protectionist economic policy Manitoba Schools Question Red River, North-West Rebellions – oversaw execution of Riel BC’s entry into Confederation Purchased Rupert’s Land from HBC Land Treaties over Prairies
Alexander MACKENZIE Prime Minister 1873 – 1878 Party: LIBERAL Background: Newspaper Editor Rise to Power: Became PM in wake of Pacific Scandal and resignation of John A. Macdonald
Alexander MACKENZIE Issues during term: Building of intercontinental railway Economic depression plaguing Canadian businesses
John J.C. ABBOTT Prime Minister 1891 – 1892 Party: CONSERVATIVE Background: Lawyer Rise to Power: Interim replacement for Macdonald after his death. Reason for Leaving: Retirement due to ill health
John J.C. ABBOTT Issues during term: Manitoba Schools Question Image Cleanup after scandals (Macdonald, etc.)
Sir John Sparrow THOMPSON Prime Minister 1892 – 1894 Party: CONSERVATIVE Background: Lawyer Rise to Power: Interim replacement for Macdonald, Abbott after their deaths. Reason for Leaving: Died while visiting Windsor Castle
Sir John Sparrow THOMPSON Issues during term: Manitoba Schools Question Image Cleanup after scandals (Macdonald, etc.) Thompson was first Catholic PM; many in party and Ontario were wary, given Protestantism and patriotic sentiment towards Britain at time
Sir Mackenzie BOWELL Prime Minister 1894 – 1896 Party: CONSERVATIVE Background: Newspaper Editor Rise to Power: interim replacement for Thompson Reason for Leaving: Lost support of own party
Sir Mackenzie BOWELL Issues during term: Manitoba Schools Question Bowell was considered by party members to be a weak leader; worse that he was a senator and could not face Opposition in House of Commons Staunch member of Orange Order (Protestant)
Sir Charles TUPPER Prime Minister May-July 1896 Party: CONSERVATIVE Background: Physician Rise to Power: Interim replacement for Bowell after his removal by Conservatives Reason for Leaving: Federal election loss
Wilfred LAURIER Prime Minister 1896 – 1911 Party: LIBERAL Background: Lawyer Rise to Power: Won 1896 election in wake of series of ineffective Conservative governments
Wilfred LAURIER Issues during term: Naval Act South African War (Boer War) Alaskan Boundary Dispute Manitoba Schools Question Reciprocity with U.S.
Robert BORDEN Prime Minister 1911 – 1920 Party: UNION Background: lawyer, obusinessman Rise to Power: Defeated Laurier in 1911 election on platform of opposing reciprocity
Robert BORDEN Issues during term: World War I Conscription Issue Military Voters Act Wartime Elections Act War Measures Act War profiteering – Sam Hughes
Arthur MEIGHEN Prime Minister: 1920 – 1921; 1926 Party: CONSERVATIVE Background: lawyer Rise to Power: Took over as leader when Borden retired
Arthur MEIGHEN Issues during term: Quick to be defeated in 1921 election Came to power in 1926 in wake of King-Byng crisis, but quickly fell due to Minority Government status
William Lyon Mackenzie KING Prime Minister: 1921 – 1926; 1926 – 1930; 1935 – 1948 Party: LIBERAL Background: journalist Rise to Power: Popularly elected as “people’s choice” moving towards greater Canadian autonomy and independence
William Lyon Mackenzie KING Issues during term: WWII King-Byng Affair Old Age Pension 1926 Unemployment Insurance 1940 Person`s Case
Richard Bedford (R.B.) BENNETT Prime Minister: 1930 – 1935 Party: CONSERVATIVE Background: Teacher, Lawyer, Businessman Rise to Power: in face of world depression, King had made comments that his government would not give a “red penny” to any relief efforts. Lost popular support and election to Bennett’s Conservatives
Richard Bedford (R.B.) BENNETT Issues during term: World depression – massive unemployment in Canada Drought on prairies “New Deal”-style policies (little effect on unemployment) Canadian Wheat Board established
Louis St. LAURENT Prime Minister: 1948 – 1958 Party: LIBERAL Background: lawyer Rise to Power: After King’s departure, Louis St. Laurent appeared to be logical successor to party – good on TV as “uncle Louis”
Louis St. LAURENT Issues during term: Newfoundland enters Confederation (1949) Women given equal pay TransCanada pipeline debate CBC established as Canada’s first TV station Korean War (1950 – 1953) Lester B. Pearson’s peace plan ends Suez Crisis
John DIEFENBAKER Prime Minister: 1957 – 1963 Party: PROGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVE Background: Lawyer Rise to Power: Beat Louis St. Laurent’s government with promise of “Canada First” and opportunities for all Canadians
John DIEFENBAKER Issues during term: St. Lawrence Seaway, Trans-Canada Highway open Avro Arrow project (military jet) scrapped
Lester PEARSON Prime Minister: 1963 – 1968 Party: LIBERAL Background: Teacher Rise to Power: After working under Louis St. Laurent as various ministers (including as Minister of External Affairs), Pearson was made leader of Liberals after St. Laurent’s loss and Diefenbaker rose to power. Narrowly won 1963 election.
Lester PEARSON Issues during term: Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism Canadian Flag unveiled Canada Pension Plan, National Medicare established Auto Pact signed with US Pearson – Johnson conflict over role in Vietnam War
Pierre Elliott TRUDEAU Prime Minister: 1968 – 1979; 1980 – 1984 Party: LIBERAL Background: Lawyer Rise to Power: During time of Quebec separatism, Trudeau joined Liberals and replaced Pearson; during 1968 election, his charisma and youthful spirit became so popular it was named “Trudeaumania”
Pierre Elliott TRUDEAU Issues during term: October Crisis (1970) – War Measures Act enacted Official Languages Act established (bilingualism) Supreme Court acknowledges aboriginal land claims Bill 101 in Quebec made law (Only French to be used) Trudeau visits communist Cuba, visits Castro Montreal is host to Olympic Games Quebec sovereignty referendum (1980) Constitution of Canada patriated (1982) Nationalization of industries, restricting foreign investment
Joe CLARK Prime Minister: 1979 – 1980 Party: PROGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVE Background: Journalist Rise to Power: Became leader of PC party with youthful and Western leanings. Won minority government against Trudeau.
Joe CLARK Issues during term: Attempted to change Petro Canada’s status (to private company) Failed to gain confidence vote in Parliament for federal budget – leads to downfall
John TURNER Prime Minister: 1984 (June-Sept) Party: LIBERAL Background: Lawyer Rise to Power: After defeating Jean Chretien to become leader of the Liberal Party in the wake of Trudeau’s retirement, Turner automatically became PM until the election later that year (lost to Brian Mulroney).
John TURNER Issues during term: Pope John Paul II visits Canada (first pope to do so) Made many patronage appointments to gain support (but angered Canadians)
Brian MULRONEY Prime Minister: 1984 – 1993 Party: PROGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVE Background: Lawyer, Corporate Executive Rise to Power: Working as a Conservative fundraiser since Diefenbaker, he finally decided to run for leadership of party; originally lost to Clark, won later with platform of bringing Quebec into constitution (instead of separating). Beat Turner in election.
Brian MULRONEY Issues during term: FTA (Free Trade Agreement) NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) Meech Lake Accord Charlottetown Accord Gulf War (Iraq) – 1991 Privatization of Crown Corporations, promoted increased foreign investment
Avril (Kim) CAMPBELL Prime Minister: 1993 (June-Oct) Party: PROGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVE Background: Professor, Lawyer Rise to Power: Once Mulroney retired with low popularity, Campbell became PM until election. Lost due to her focus on frank realities instead of campaign promises, and her association to the party that many Canadians now hated.
Avril (Kim) CAMPBELL Issues during term: First Nations sign Umbrella Final Agreement Ends peacekeeping mission in Cyprus PC party largest election loss – down to 2 seats
Jean CHRETIEN Prime Minister: 1993 – 2003 Party: LIBERAL Background: Lawyer Rise to Power: Working in various ministry positions for Trudeau, Chretien tried to win leadership but lost first to Turner; won 1993 election after Mulroney/Campbell party lost favour with public.
Jean CHRETIEN Issues during term: Worldwide recession Toonie ($2 coin) enters circulation Quebec Referendum (1995) – 50.6% NO New parties formed: Reform Party, Bloc Quebecois Nunavut created (1999) Canadian troops torture civilian in Somalia Canada joins NATO forces in Kosovo Canadarm II placed on International Space Station Massive cutbacks in federal spending Trade missions to China (to increase trade)