Presentation on theme: "Interesterification In certain lipids the distribution of fatty acids at various positions of the triglyceride are not random. In some cases this is desirable,"— Presentation transcript:
1InteresterificationIn certain lipids the distribution of fatty acids at various positions of the triglyceride are not random.In some cases this is desirable, in other cases, randomness is desired.Exchange of fatty acids may occur at 250 ° C with no catalyst or at 0° C with the proper catalyst.
3Interesterification Lard Performance and Interesterification Air Incorporation (%) BeforeAfterPound Cake62225Loaf Volume8501495
4InteresterificationCatalyst is usually sodium methoxide
5InteresterificationInteresterification within a triglyceride
6InteresterificationOr between triglycerides. Start withEnd with
7Interesterification Directed Interesterification Native lard is too uniform and tends to from b crystals which do not incorporate air wellRandomized lard has the proper crystal structure, but is too soft.Best performance when lard contains about 10% trisaturated glycerides.It is possible to have the reaction occur at a temperature that is below the melting point of GS3. This will cause these molecules to solidify and they are not able to participate in further reactions.Results in a lard with b' crystals and the proper consistency.
8Crystallization Polymorphism Polymorphic forms are solid phases of the same chemical composition that differ among themselves in crystalline structure, but yield identical liquid phases upon melting.
9Crystallization Crystal Stability Monotropic - one stable crystal form that proceeds from less stable form to more stable form after heating and coolingEnantiotropic - each form has a definite temperature range of stabilityTriglycerides are monotropic
22ShorteningsIncorporation of air, plasticity, consistency and solid-liquid ratio are important characteristics of shortenings that depend, in part, on polymorphism.β' Crystals - large amounts of small air cells- Yields whiter, creamier product that is tender and has a smooth textureβ Crystals - small amounts of large air cells - Yields large clustered crystals with a waxy or grainy texture
23Enrobing Cocoa Butter - 80% composed of disaturated triglycerides SOS = 20%POS = 55%POP = 5%
24POS determines the texture of cocoa butter Alpha form 17° CBeta Prime 27° CBeta 35.5°CBeta prime gives small crystal structure which leads to bloom
25LardNatural lard mostly OPS (64%) tends to form beta crystals and is poor at air incorporation.Randomized lard is less ordered and it is harder to form beta crystals. Beta prime incorporates more air.
26Melting points (oC) of Fat crystals FormSSSSPSPSPα54.751.847.0β’64.069.0β73.368.565.5
27FryingMass Transfer Water in a frying food migrates from the center to the surface. As water is removed at the surface due to heating, water is 'pumped' to the surface. The rate of water loss and its ease of migration through the product are important to the final characteristics of the food.Heat Transfer Water evaporation from the surface of a frying food also removes heat from the surface and inhibits charring or burning at the surface. The heat of vaporization of water to steam removes much of the heat at the food/oil surface.Heat Removal As long as water is being removed at a sufficient rate, the surface of the food will not char. Subsurface water in the food will also conduct heat away from the surface and towards the center of the product.
28FryingInterior Cooking The transfer of heat to the interior of the product by water will result in cooking of the interior of the food. Want enough heat to 'cook' the product, but not enough to cause damage - example -French fryOil - Food Interactions Ideally the food products should have similar dimensions and thus, similar surface to volume ratios. Once an equilibrium is established all processes should be the same unless there are changes in equipment function or in oil composition.Oil The properties of oil change with frying. New oil has a high heat capacity that diminishes with use. Other factors such as viscosity may change dramatically with use
29Frying Mass Transfer Heat Transfer Heat Removal Interior Cooking Oil - Food InteractionsOilThe properties of oil change with frying. New oil has a high heat capacity that diminishes with use. Other factors such as viscosity may change dramatically with use
30Frying - Stages of oilBreak in oil. White product, raw, ungelatinatized starch at center of fry; no cooked odors, no crisping of the surface, little oil pickup by the food.Fresh Oil Slight browning at edges of fry; partially cooked (gelatinization) centers; crisping of the surface; slightly more oil absorption.Optimum Oil Golden brown color; crisp, rigid surface; delicious potato and oil odors; fully cooked centers (rigid, ringing gel); optimal oil absorption.Degrading Oil Darkened and/or spotty surfaces; excess oil pickup; product moving towards limpness; case hardened surfaces.Runaway Oil Dark, case hardened surfaces; excessively oily product; surfaces collapsing inward; centers not fully cooked; off-odor and flavors (burned).
31Frying - Quality of oil Indicators of frying oil quality: Total polar compoundsConjugated dienesFFADielectric constantColorpHSensorySmoke point, Fire point, Flash point
32Frying - Quality of oil Flavor Reversion Special type of oxidative deterioration characterized by an objectionable flavor prior to the onset of true rancidityMay develop during exposure of fat to ultraviolet or visible light or heatReverted soybean oil described as “painty”, “beany”, “haylike” or “grassy” and in final stages as “fishy”Linolenic acid most common source