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*AGGRESSION, APPEASEMENT AND WAR *THE GLOBAL CONFLICT, AXIS ADVANCES *THE GLOBAL CONFLICT, ALLIED SUCCESSES *TOWARD VICTORY *FROM WORLD WAR TO COLD WAR.

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Presentation on theme: "*AGGRESSION, APPEASEMENT AND WAR *THE GLOBAL CONFLICT, AXIS ADVANCES *THE GLOBAL CONFLICT, ALLIED SUCCESSES *TOWARD VICTORY *FROM WORLD WAR TO COLD WAR."— Presentation transcript:

1 *AGGRESSION, APPEASEMENT AND WAR *THE GLOBAL CONFLICT, AXIS ADVANCES *THE GLOBAL CONFLICT, ALLIED SUCCESSES *TOWARD VICTORY *FROM WORLD WAR TO COLD WAR World War II and its Aftermath

2 Quick Review  Rise of Fascism  Italy--Mussolini Economic Problems Weakness after WW1 Promised to restore order and glory  Germany-Hitler Economic Problems Weakness after WW1 Promised to restore order and glory  US/World Reaction Dealing with own problems – Great Depression Didn’t want to get involved in another European war

3 Dictators Change World Peace  1930’s – Dictators aggressive action met only protests and please for peace. At the time, leaders believed this policy would work  Mussolini & Hitler views pleas for peace as weakness  JAPAN- Military leaders and ultranationalists thought Japan should be a super power like the western powe rs  Invaded Manchuria in 1931 (with protests from the west, pulled out of League of Nations)  BY 1937, Japan had overran most of China (more protests, but no action against)  ITALY – Mussolini wanted to display his military power and used Ethiopia (in revenge for loss in 1896)  Ethiopians resisted, as best they could, with outdated weapons  Ethiopian leader, Haile Selassie, appealed for help from League of Nations  LofN voted for sanctions (without power to enforce)  Italy conquered Ethiopia in a very short time

4 Dictators Change World Peace  GERMANY – Hitler will test the western powers by defying the Treaty of Versailles – building up his military  German troops sent into Rhinelands to retake lands taken at the end of WWI  APPEASEMENT – Hitler’s moves were denounced but took no action. Western powers gave into his demands rather than risk confrontation  APPEASEMENT – now seen as an error, but at time there were reasons No desire to confront Hitler (some even saw actions as justifiable – treaty too harsh) Many saw Hitler as a defense against a worse evil – Soviet Communism Great Depression weakened most nations – in no position to put up a fight PACIFISM – opposition to all war – disgust with level of devastation from WWI US passed “Neutality Acts” that forbade the US from selling arms to warring nations, outlawed loans to warring nations, intended to prevent involvement in another European war ROME – BERLIN – TOKYO AXIS – agreed to fight against communism Agreed to stay out of each others way as they took bolder and bolder steps

5 The Spanish Civil War  From Monarchy to a Republic Popular unrest in the early 30’s forced the King of Spain to leave. A republic was established with more liberal ideas and a constitution Controversial reforms: taking Church lands, land to peasants, women’s right to vote, ending the privileges of the elite ruling class Most Spaniards wanted a peaceful democracy, but clashes between the extremes (right and left) created chaos  Nationalists vs. Loyalists Fascist leader Franco, touched off a bloody civil war “Nationalists” Loyalists, supporters of the new republic, fought to keep their democracy Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin and others sent troops to “aid” in fighting US, GB and France remained neutral  Dress Rehearsal Violent clashes led to the deaths of more than 1 million Spanish Germany backed Franco, sent military to aid (and test) Franco established a Fascist regime and rolled back the earlier reforms

6 German Aggression Continues  3rd Reich Hitler wanted to bring all German speaking areas under German control “Living Space” to the east “Aryan Race” superiority meant they had the right to conquer lesser races  Austria ANNEXED Hitler bullied Austria into accepting Nazi’s in their government When they resisted, German troops sent to “preserve order” Hitler declared himself leader of Austria, breaking the Treaty of Versailles Brief fear of a war kept the West from interfering in Hitler’s plans  The Czech Crisis Hitler demanded “Sudetenland” be given autonomy (choice) GB and France unwilling to stand up to Hitler to protect this democracy Hitler increased demands and the West caved in and gave Czech to Hitler Hitler assured GB and FR he had not further plans to expand (APPEASEMENT)

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8 APPEASEMENT – N. Chamberlain  “Peace in Our Time” After meeting with Hitler, PM Neville Chamberlain of GB declared the “MUNICH PACT” had ‘saved Czechoslovakia from destruction and Europe from armageddon’ Czechoslovakia had revealed Hitler’s plans and the weakness of the West Winston Churchill, a British politician, warned against appeasement ‘They had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor, they will have war.’

9 German Russian Non-Aggression Pact  The first pact was an economic agreement, which Ribbentrop and Molotov signed on August 19, The economic agreement committed the Soviet Union to provide food products as well as raw materials to Germany in exchange for furnished products such as machinery from Germany. During the first years of the war, this economic agreement helped Germany bypass the British blockade.  On August 23, 1939, four days after the economic agreement was signed and a little over a week before the beginning of World War II, Ribbentrop and Molotov signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact. (The pact is also referred to as the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact and the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact.) Publicly, this agreement stated that the two countries - Germany and the Soviet Union - would not attack each other. If there were ever a problem between the two countries, it was to be handled amicably. The pact was supposed to last for ten years; it lasted for less than two.

10 Example of writing  North Mason High School is in Belfair Washington. The high school is rated 2A and its mascot is “The Bulldogs (nmsd.wednet.edu).  Belfair is located at the tip of Hood Canal (AAA map)and has a population of about 2000, but the region is far more populated than that. People live in surrounding communities and those students also attend North Mason High School.

11 Europe Plunges Toward War  Appeasement DID NOT bring peace!!  Nazi-Soviet Pact – (Aug 1939)  Non aggression pact signed between German and Soviet Union Agreed to not fight each other and to divide up Poland & other parts of E. Europe  Pact based on mutual fear/need  Soviets looked to Allies for aid, bought time to build defenses  Why War Came  Axis Aggression  Treaty of Versailles  Failure of west to confront looming problems with Axis powers  Allies concerned with own internal issues (Great Depression)

12 Early Axis Gains  Blitzkrieg – lighting war – was used to quickly overwhelm opponents. First bombers would hit airfields, factories, towns and cities. Then dive bombers would hit the troops and civilians. Finally, fast moving tanks and troop transports would move in and take over. Used against Poland and other to follow.  The “Phony War” – The French enforced the “Maginot Line”. The British sent troops to back them up. Meanwhile, Hitler’s troops bypassed the Maginot Line and “blitzkrieged” through Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands and Belguim. Germany was quickly right on France’s border  Miracle at Dunkirk – retreating British troops were trapped between advancing Germany troops and the sea at Dunkirk. In an amazing gamble, the British sent every boat they could find across the British Channel to rescue them. More than 300,000 troops were rescues to fight another day. The British would be able to hold on against the Germans because of this miracle

13 Early Axis Gains (contintued)  France Falls Once Germany blitzed through, they quickly marched on Paris Italy declared war in France and attacked from the south In revenge for WWI, Germany forced France to surrender in same rail car that Germany had been forced to surrender in Germany occupied north France and set up a puppet government in the south Some French will escape and set up a government in exile led by DeGaulle Worked to liberate France with the “french resistance” movement  Africa & the Balkans Axis armies will push into N. Africa and the Balkans (S 1040) Rommel will lead Germany’s tank forces in controlling N Africa (O 1940) By 1941, Axis controlled Eastern Europe (greece, hungary, yugoslavia, bulgaria)  The Technology of Modern Warfare Air Power – Luftwaffe – perfected methods of bombing civilian and military targets Radar & Sonar Tanks & Troops carriers Synthetic products improved war machinery Medical advances improved treatment of injured Far greater destructive power

14 Battle of Britain & the “Blitz”  Battle of Britain – England remained the only power left  Winston Churchill (who replaced appeaser Neville Chamberlain) vowed to resist “We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight on the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender. Winston Churchill (1940) For many years, Churchill will be the lone voice against the Nazi’s Hitler’s generals make a plan for the invasion of England called “Operation Sea Lion.” In preparation, he launched MASSIVE airstrikes

15 Battle of Britain & the “Blitz”  The London Blitz  Aug German bombers begin daily bombing of England’s s. coast  For 1 month, the RAF fought back valiantly  Germany changed tactics, switched from military targets to civilian ones  Sept 1940 – London was bombed, day and night, for 57 straight days  Much of London destroyed, more than 15,000 people killed  London did not crumble Parliament continued to meet Citizens tried to carry on their daily lives, running to bomb shelters when needed Children sent out of London to the countryside The King and Queen showed their solidarity by going to the bomb shelters instead of fleeing the city  Failure of the Blitz  Bombing will continue on and off thru June 1941  Instead of ‘breaking’ the British, it only strengthened their will to fight  Hitler will stop the attacks on England and turn his sights on the Soviet Union next

16 Operation Barbarosa  Hitler decided to break the “non-aggression pact” he had made with Stalin (wanted raw materials Russia possessed) and he wanted to crush communism & Stalin  The German Advance Hitler unleashes a new type of blitzkrieg – 3 million german soldiers pour into Russia Caught totally unprepared, Russia losed 2-3 million in fighting back As they retreated, they destroyed EVERYTHING in their path, to keep from enemies By winter, Germany had advanced deep into Russia, but stalled there - WINTER  Siege of Leningrad 2 ½ year siege on Leningrad cost Germany and Russia People of Russia badly suffered (food shortages, no heat) Boiled wallpaper for the flour paste, boiled leather briefcases to eat the softened leather More than 1 million Russians will die in Leningrad alone Stalin begged the US & Great Britain to attack Hitler hoping it would lessen their attack No help now, but later in the war, the two sides would work together

17 American Involvement Grows Early on, the US had declared “neutrality” Morally supported Allies, but didn’t want to get involved President FD Roosevelt will find ways around neutrality to help Allies The Arsenal of Democracy Lend-Lease Act – gave surplus military supplies to Allies in exchange for lease on some strategic bases US became the “arsenal of democracy” Atlantic Charter 1941 – Churchill and Roosevelt will secretly met and agreed on the “Atlantic Charter,” a plan on how they could defeat Hitler together

18 World War II Jeopardy In assigned groups, you will be creating 15 jeopardy questions to be used to review or on the test There are 5 sections 1 easy question 1 medium question 1 hard question Your group will receive class time to complete these and turn them in by Tuesday.

19 Jeopardy Groups GROUP ONE: Chandler, Ryan, Olivia, Araziea, Natalie, Milynn GROUP TWO: Emma, Tyler, Amy, Kaylla, Justin, Nicoli GROUP THREE: Zak, Tristen, Stephanie, Samantha, Tayler, Savannah GROUP FOUR: Jason, Arianna, Kelli, Charles, Lisa GROUP FIVE: Gabe, Avery, Stevie, Sierra, Brendan

20 Japan Attacks –  Japan had taken over much of China in the 1930’s  Growing Tensions To stop Japanese aggression, the US cut off oil & scrap metal Angered, the Japanese military devised a plan to get even and to knock the US out of the Pacific, enabling them to do whatever they wanted  Attack on Pearl Harbor In a surprise attack, the Japanese destroyed 19 ships, killed more than 2,400 “A date which will live in Infamy” President Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan, Germany declares war on the US, WORLD WAR II on  Japanese Victories Without opposition, Japan able to capture much of SE Asia Attacking US will prove to be a BIG mistake, but will keep them away for a while  Germany controls Europe, Japan controls Asia

21 Occupied Lands  WWII on larger scale, involved military and civilian targets  Nazi Europe (Germany will amass victory after victory) Racial obsession about Aryan race led Germany to push aside people for “living space” Nazi’s took resources for themselves, 1000’s sent to work camps Resistance movements arose, Nazi’s brutally repressed any opposition “savage revenge”  Nazi Genocide (more than 6 million Jews died in death camps) Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, and the mentally ill needed to be eliminated, according to Nazi’s “FINAL SOLUTION” devised to murder all the Jews in Europe Death Camps (Auschwitz, Sobibor, Treblinka) used to gas, cremate victims Jews shipped from all over Europe to the camps Sorted for death If they survived, they were used to work/medical experiments Clothing, belongings sorted and used Some helped Jews hide/escape Others collaborated with the Nazi’s

22 The Allied War Effort  Once the US entered the war, the leaders of the main countries (US, USSR, GB) met to discuss strategies (1942) BIG THREE - Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill Agreed to finish war in Europe first, then deal with Japan Big Three DID NOT trust each other US/GB believed Stalin wanted to dominate/take over Europe Stalin believed US/GB wanted to destroy communism Stalin urged Allies to attack Hitler to relieve pressure on Russia by opening a 2 nd front of the war Not until 1944 would this occur US/GB said they did not have resources to do yet Stalin believed they wanted Russia to take the brunt of Nazi power to weaken the Soviet Union (communism)

23 Total War  TOTAL WAR: Channeling of a nation’s entire resources into a war effort (targeting military and civilian targets)  US & GB committed their economies to the war effort Able to transition existing businesses into making war craft Ended unemployment – the Great Depression over Governments rations needed goods – food, metal, rubber, silk, etc  Governments used propaganda and limited rights in some countries US – Japanese internment GB – German’s also detained as refugees

24 Women Help Win the War  Millions of women, worldwide, replaced the men (who went off to war) in factories in essential jobs  Women built ships, planes, guns, ammo  British and American women served in the Armed Forces in auxiliary roles (driving trucks, ambulances, delivering airplanes, decoding messages.  Women fought in the “Resistance” in Nazi-occupied countries

25 Turning Points  Key battles turn the tide of the war in favor of the Allies North Africa – EL ALAMEIN – British Tank Commander Montgomery turned by the “Desert Fox” Rommel. Then US joined in. Generals Eisenhower and Patton helped surround and force surrender of German tank forces INVASION OF ITALY – “Soft Underbelly of Europe” – Victory in North Africa gave Allies a place to jump off into Italy Sicily & Southern Italy – Italian troops defeated in 1 month Italians overthrew Mussolini (strung up Mussolini & wife to make example of them) Hitler sent troops to try to keep Italy (and keep Allies back) Next 18 months, the Allies SLOWLY push north, brutal battles, high casualties Decisive because is forced Hitler to fight on a 2 nd front, weakened his military force

26 Red Army Resists  Germans stalled in Russia in Hitler will launch a new offensive, going for the oil fields, but got hung up in Stalingrad  Stalingrad – one of the costliest of the war (Stalin’s namesake)  Germans surrounded city  Russians surrounded the attackers  A bitter street by street battle over the winter ensued  Trapped, without food or ammo, the German commander finally surrendered  Battle cost the Germans 300,000 killed, wounded or captured  Counterattack –  After the victory at Stalingrad, the Soviet Army began pushing the Germans out of Russia  The Nazi’s suffered irreplaceable losses in troops and equipment  Germans in full retreat and the Russians on the advance into Eastern Europe

27 War in the Pacific  After Pearl Harbor, Japan won a string of victories  By 1942, Japan controlled most of SE Asia  Philippines – Bataan Death March example of brutal treatment  May/June 42 – US had recovered and began to fight back  After Battle of Midway, US took the offensive and began to push the Japanese back by using “ISLAND HOPPING”  Fighting was intense. Each island was expensive in lives of both Japanese and Americans  By 1944 – US within range to bomb Japanese cities and industries

28 Nazis Defeated  The Allied Advance June 6, 1944 – D-Day – Allied Forces attack mainland Europe thru Normandy France After freeing France – Allies begin pushing German forces back Battle of the Bulge – Hitler’s last try to stop the Allies 1 month – horrible losses by both sides (Germans 100,000 Allies 80,000) Loss of support back home – several assassination attempts on Hitler Germany now under 24 hour bombings For 2 years, Allies had bombed German cities, factories, railroads, oil depots, military bases Hamburg almost erased in 10 days of bombing Dresden -135, 000 killed in bombings March ‘45 – Allies enter Germany from West, Russians enter from the East

29 The End in Europe  The End in Europe  Italy – Mussolini captured, killed. Italy switches sides and joins Allies  Germany – Russians advance through Poland and race to Berlin Hitler will commit suicide in his bunker before the Russians take Berlin  1000 year Reich ends when Germany surrenders on May 7, 1945 The leaders of Germany after Hitler’s suicide surrender shortly after The BIG THREE now meet to manage the peach “Tug-of-war” between Stalin and FDR/Churchill Stalin – needs BUFFER ZONE between Russia and Europe - wants to export Communism to other countries FDR/Churchill – want Europe rebuilt as a center of democracry - must protect against communist intrusion

30 Defeat of Japan  Allies (US) could now concentrate on Japan  By mid-45’ Japan’s navy and air force had been destroyed  Japan still had 2 million soldiers ready to fight  Victory was at hand, but fighting would be deadly  Kamikazi fighters

31 Invasion v. the Bomb  Allies needed Japan to surrender, they had to be convinced Battles leading up to this point had been fanatical Kamikazi attacks showed lengths to which the Japanese would go  Options (Emperor refused to surrender, despite obvious defeat)  Invade Estimated losses for the Allies 1 million, Japanese maybe 10x  Blockade Take long time, may or may not be successful  Peace settlement Allow Japan less than total surrender  “The Bomb” (US had secretly developed new bomb) New weapon, would have devastating effects on Japan Level of destruction far beyond even the makers belief Death toll would be in the 100,000’s, immediately (many more die of radiation poisoning)

32 Hiroshima  August 6, 1945 – American dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima  4 square miles were flattened, killing more than 70,000 instantly. Nearly as many died from radiation poisoning  JAPANESE LEADERS DID NOT RESPOND TO CALLS TO SURRENDER  August 8, 1945 – Russian attacks Japan by invading Manchuria (as part of the agreement of the Big 3) Agreement with allies at end of European war To claim lands in Asia, as part of expanding communism  JAPANEST LEADERS STILL DID NOT SURRENDER  August 9, 1945 – 2 ND atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki ,000 killed, nearly as many die from radiation poisoning  FINALLY, THE EMPEROR OVERRULED GOVERNMENT AND SURRENDERED

33 Ongoing Controversy  Dropping the bomb brought a swift end to the war, but at what cost?  The Atomic Age had begun  The debate over whether the US should have used this powerful weapon still goes on today  Truman’s reasoning  Japan would not surrender without an invasion, costing millions of lives Did not want to face American mothers who lost their sons in an invasion he could have prevented!!  Truman hoped the power of the bomb would impress/scare the Soviet Union

34 From World War to Cold War  Casualties of the war  Europe million dead (both sides combined)  Russia---22 million dead  Brutality of the war was unpresidented  Aftermath of the War  Horrors of the Holocaust – Allies aware of death camps but the full extent was overwhelming More than 10 million (6 million Jews) killed in the camps  War Crimes Trials Axis leaders needed to be held accountable “Crimes Against Humanity” charges at Nuremburg trials 177 Germans tried, 142 found guilty (a few were executed, most imprisoned) Japanese leaders will also be tried and convicted of war crimes Trials exposed the horrors of the Fascist regimes  Allied Occupation Ordinary people went along with the Nazi horrors US believed strengthening democracy would ensure tolerance and peace Helped set up new governments (Example: schools replaced Nazi school books with books that taught democratic principles and the rights of citizens

35 From World War to Cold War  The United Nations – International organization to ensure peace  UN charter – each nation got 1 vote in General Assembly  5 permanent members of the Security Council (US, GB, Fr, USSR, China)  Work of UN goes far beyond peacekeeping today (UNICEF, WHO)  The Alliance Breaks Apart  Growing Differences Tensions between USSR and US/GB split the alliance shortly after the war  Origins of the Cold War Stalin – 2 goals: Spread Communism, Buffer Zone Red Army occupied lands they took back from Germany, said US hadn’t consulted them on how to deal with Japan after the war Churchill and FDR made Stalin promise “free elections”, he did but then set up puppet governments and single-party communism  A Divided Europe “Iron Curtain” dropped on Europe between East (communist) and West (democracies)

36 World History B CBA  The CBA is a required element of World History A  The issue: Should the U.S. use the atomic bomb against Japan in an attempt to end World War II? Or should the U.S. pursue another course of action to end the war?  You will research and write a persuasive essay on the topic above  Identify options open to the US  Explore the consequences (economic, social and historical) of each option  Defend whether you believe the US use of the Atomic Bomb is/was justified

37 From World War to Cold War  Aftermath of War: 75 million worldwide died (USSR – 22 million)  Horrors of the Holocaust Allies became aware of Death Camps, but only at the end of the war did they learn of the extent of the inhumanity and misery of the Holocaust 11 million killed 6 million Jews (2/3 of all the Jewish people in Europe) 1.1 million children killed  War Crimes Trials – Nuremburg - “Crimes against Humanity” 177 Nazi’s tried – 142 convicted Most went to jail, a few were executed Similar trials held in Italy and Japan Trials to hold leaders accountable for the actions they ordered, even in wartime  Allied Occupation Japan – troops occupied while new governments, based on democracy, set up Germany – split into 4 quarters (US, GB, Fr, USSR)

38 New Conflicts Develop  Soon, Stalin took aggressive action in buffer zone countries  Truman Doctrine – US would support free people who resisted attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures  It was clear the US would resist any attempt of Soviet expansion  “Containment” – can’t/won’t try to get rid of communism, just won’t allow it to spread to other countries  Truman sent troops and economic aid to Turkey and Greece after the war  Marshall Plan – Plan to rebuild war-torn nations after WW2  Food and Economic aid sent to any country asking (billions in US aid)  All they had to do was have a plan and promise free elections  US even offered aid to countries under Soviet control, it was rejected and the USSR sent aid instead  This set up a race to aid countries around the globe to lure them to each side

39 New Conflicts Develop  Divisions In Germany – country and capital split into 4 zones  Each zone occupied by a country to maintain control and aid in rebuilding  West Germany/Berlin (US, GB, Fr) was democratic and free  East Germany/Berlin (USSR) was communist  Berlin Airlift – Soviets tried to cut off the west from Berlin (inside E. Germany)  The West began to fly in supplies around the clock for over a year (food & fuel)  Eventually the blockade was lifted and the West won the challenge but it deepened the hostilities between the East and the West  Military Alliances (Mutual Defense Organizations)  NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)  WARSAW PACT (USSR and Satellite Nations)  The Arms Race – Each side tried to build more, bigger military tools  US led early with only atomic bomb  Once USSR had an atomic bomb, the race was on

40 Ch 18 Essays  Explain what “APPEASEMENT” is and how it led to World War II. Give specific examples  Hitler wanted a superior race to rule over the Third Reich. Give/explain 3 specific examples of methods used to promote/purify the Aryan race in Germany.  The world was determined not to repeat the errors of the first world war. Name/explain 3 specific examples of policies/programs used after World War II to keep the peace

41 Concentration Camps

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44 German Death Factories  Death Camp Number of Victims  Auschwitz 2,000,000  Belzec 850,000  Sobibor 250,000  Treblinka 700,000  Chelmno 300,000

45 Total Deaths from Nazi Genocidal Policies  Group Deaths  European Jews 5,600,000 to 6,250,000  Soviet prisoners of war 3,000,000  Polish Catholics 3,000,000  Serbians 700,000 (Croat Ustasa persecution)  Roma, Sinti, and Lalleri 222,000 to 250,000  Germans (political, religious, and Resistance) 80,000  Germans (handicapped) 70,000  Homosexuals 12,000  Jehovah’s Witnesses 2500

46 Death Camps


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