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The Book of Exodus: Transitions

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1 The Book of Exodus: Transitions
References: Primary Dr. Constable’s Notes on Exodus 2009 Edition (derived outline and some notes) Secondary International Study Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE) Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews Matthew Henry Commentary JFB Commentary God’s Instructions to Israel: Exodus 15:22-18:27

2 Announcements Congratulations to Allison Lutrell, who was baptized April 4, by Neil Reynolds Congratulations to Jon Francis, who was baptized April 11, by his grandfather, Roy Reaves The fundraiser for the Kids 4 Christ playground equipment ends April 11, and we are about half way to the goal amount. Checks can be made out to West Side and earmarked “playground equipment”. See Kyle or Kelli Lamberson for more information Girlfriends Unlimited is collecting box fans for Help Network in April. They can be found at Lowe’s or Wal-Mart for about $ We can combine with one or two other people to offset the cost

3 Prayer List Johanna Kenner – waiting on tests results for possible cancer remission Kenny Freeman – heart tests at Mayo Clinic, in Minnesota, this week Beverly Stewart (Meme Pitney’s mother) surgery to be scheduled for a broken hip Joel Tippit’s sister, Ramona Jan Parker, passed away Tuesday, April 13

4 Exodus Week Date Topic 1 10 Mar 10
Exodus – Transitions: An Introduction 2 17 Mar 10 God’s Preparation of Israel: Exodus 1-4 3 24 Mar 10 God’s Sovereignty: Exodus 5-11 4 31 Mar 10 God’s Redemption: Exodus 12:1-13:16 5 07 Apr10 God’s Completion: Exodus 13:17-15:21 6 14 Apr 10 God’s Instructions to Israel: Exodus 15:22-18:27 7 21 Apr 10 Mosaic Covenant: Exodus 19:1-24:11 8 28 Apr 10 Dwelling Among His People: Exodus 24:12-31:18 9 05 May 10 Breaking/Renewing the Covenant: Exodus 32-34 10 12 May 10 Senior Blessing Night – No classes 11 19 May 10 Israel’s Worship: Exodus 35-40 12 26 May 10 New Testament Implications 13 02 Jun 10 Exodus – Transitions: A Summary

5 Today’s Objectives Review lesson from 07 Apr 10 (cross the sea)
Review historical maps of the region Learn about challenges to the Israelite’s faith after they pass through the sea In Marah In Elim Desert of Sin Learn about God’s commands concerning the Sabbath Learn about the battle with the Amalekites Learn about Jethro’s visit with Moses

6 Last week Learned about the beginning of the Israelite journey from Goshen to Canaan Reviewed possible routes traveled Learned about the passage through the “Red” Sea Learned what actions the Egyptians take as they watch this exodus take place Learned how God rescues the Israelites again Learned about the Song of Deliverance Next week, Mosaic Covenant: Exodus 19:1-24:11

7 Key Points of Exodus God’s grace towards His people
Delivery from the bonds of slavery Deliverance to the freedom of a covenant relationship and fellowship with him No other biblical book surfaces elsewhere in the OT as frequently as the Book of Exodus does; in the NT only the Books of Psalms and Isaiah are cited more Acts 7 is a key companion to Exodus and a quick read See Constable Notes on Exodus, pg 2, further referencing Merrill. 7

8 Timeline Moses lived from approximately 1525-1405 BC
Completed writing of Exodus after 1445 BC Exodus covers approximately 431 years of history Arrival of Jacob and his family in Egypt to the construction of the Tabernacle in Sinai in 1445 BC Israelites lived in Egypt for 430 years (Gen 12:40) Time of oppression was 400 years (Gen 15:13) Transition time in Egypt Egyptians had expelled the Hyskos rulers of the time Egyptians formed a world power of which there was no match The Bible says that the Israelites built Raamses, and since Ramesses the second, who ruled between 1290 and 1224 B.C., built a royal city named Pi-Ramesse, many just assume him to be the pharaoh of the Exodus. However recent excavations at this site indicate that this city was occupied much earlier by the Egyptians. The name Raamses itself has also been found inscribed on a burial tomb painting from Pharaoh Amenhotep III; who ruled nearly 100 years before Ramesses II. Although the Bible never specifically identifies the pharaoh of the Exodus by name, it does tell us the exact date of the Exodus. 1Kings 6:1 states that Solomon began building the Temple in the fourth year of his reign, 480 years after the Exodus. Most Bible scholars agree that the fourth year of Solomon's reign was 967 B.C. So the date of the Exodus can be calculated: = 1447 B.C. And according to history, Pharaoh Ramesses did not begin his reign until around 1290 B.C., so he couldn't have been the Exodus pharaoh. Depending upon which history book you read, there are two possible candidates. The first is pharaoh Amenhotep II who may have ruled from ( B.C.). He was the son of Thutmose III, who ruled from either ( ) or ( B.C.), the other possible candidate. Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Thutmose III and meaning Son of Thoth) was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. During the first twenty-two years of Thutmose's reign he was co-regent with his aunt, Hatshepsut, who was named the pharaoh. While she is shown first on surviving monuments, both were assigned the usual royal names and insignia and neither is given any obvious seniority over the other.[3] He served as the head of her armies. After her death and his later rise to being the pharaoh of the kingdom, he created the largest empire Egypt had ever seen; no fewer than seventeen campaigns were conducted, and he conquered from Niya in north Syria to the fourth waterfall of the Nile in Nubia. Officially, Thutmose III ruled Egypt for almost fifty-four years, and his reign is usually dated from April 24, 1479 BC to March 11, 1425 BC; however, this includes the twenty-two years he was co-regent to Hatshepsut—his stepmother and aunt. During the last two years of his reign he became a coregent again, with his son, Amenhotep II, who would succeed him. When he died he was buried in the Valley of the Kings as were the rest of the kings from this period in Egypt. Scholars disagree as to the exact dates that these two men ruled which makes it difficult to pin point the exact one. To get some clues, lets look at what the Bible says about the events surrounding the life of Moses. The first place we will start, is with the date of his birth. Exodus 7:7 states the following: "Moses was eighty years old and Aaron eighty three years old when they spoke to Pharaoh." Adding 80 years to the date of the Exodus in 1447 B.C. equals 1527 B.C.; the approximate year in which Moses was born. The ruler of Egypt at this time was Pharaoh Thutmose I ( B.C.) The fascinating thing about his name is that if you remove THUT from his name you are left with MOSE. Thutmose I (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Thutmose I) was the third Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. He was given the throne after the death of the previous king Amenhotep I. During his reign, he campaigned deep into the Levant and Nubia, pushing the borders of Egypt further than ever before. He also built many temples in Egypt and built a tomb for himself in the Valley of the Kings; he is the first king confirmed to have done this (though Amenhotep I may have preceded him). He was succeeded by his son Thutmose II, who in turn was succeeded by Thutmose II's sister, Hatshepsut. His reign is generally dated from 1506 to 1493 BCE. What's the chance of this being just a coincidence? According to the Bible, in Exodus 1:22-2:10, this Pharaoh gave the command that every son who was born of the Hebrews should be cast into the river. So fearing the child's life, the mother of Moses hid him in a basket in the reeds along the bank of the Nile. While Pharaoh’s daughter was walking along the riverside she found him and raised him as her son. Although the Bible never records her name, the Jewish historian Josephus writing in the first century does. He states: "Pharaoh’s daughter, Thermuthis, was walking along the river bank. Seeing a basket floating by, she called to her swimmers to retrieve it for her. When her servants came back with the basket, she was overjoyed to see the beautiful little infant inside . . . Thermuthis gave him the name Moses, which in Egyptian means “saved from the water" Having no children of her own, she adopted him as her own son." Josephus says that the name of pharaoh’s daughter was Thermuthis, which sounds an awful lot like the royal name Thutmose or Thutmosis. According to history, Pharaoh Thutmose and his wife, Queen Ahmose, had two daughters, Neferubity, of whom little is known, and Hatshepsut who later became Queen and bore the title ‘Kings daughter’. Hatshepsut married her stepbrother Thutmose II as arranged by her father. After her father’s death, her husband Thutmose II became pharaoh, but Hatshepsut was really in power. Queen Thutmose II if you will. She became one of Egypt's greatest rulers. She coreigned with her husband from approximately B.C. The next significant event which occurs in the life of Moses is when he flees the land of Egypt after killing an Egyptian. Moses was 40 years old at this time according to Acts 7:23-30 which says: "Now when he was forty years old, it came into his heart to visit his brethren, the children of Israel. And seeing one of them suffer wrong, he defended and avenged him who was oppressed, and struck down the Egyptian.” “Moses fled and became a dweller in the land of Midian, where he had two sons. And when forty years had passed, an Angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire in a bush, in the wilderness of Mount Sinai." Subtracting 40 years from the date of Moses birth in 1527 B.C. equals 1487 B.C., the date at which he flees Egypt. Either Thutmose II or Thutmose III would have been in power around this time. Since historians are not sure on the exact dates for their reign, lets go through the two possibilities. 1) THUTMOSE III - EXODUS PHARAOH? If Thutmose II was the Pharaoh from whom Moses fled, Thutmose III may have been the Pharaoh of the Exodus. The Jewish historian Josephus wrote the following: "The Pharaoh, from whom Moses had fled, died, and a new Pharaoh had become ruler." After the death of Thutmose II, his son, not by Hatshepsut, became pharaoh. Thutmose III coreigned with Queen Hatshepsut until her death in 1482 B.C. He then ruled alone until approximately 1450 B.C. It is also known that Thutmose III was so jealous of the acts done by Queen Hatshepsut that one of his first acts, after her death, was to purge her name off of all monuments in Egypt. Another interesting thing recorded in history about Thutmose III was that he was the greatest conqueror in Egyptian history, he was known as the Napoleon of ancient Egypt. During his reign he had recorded that he subdued the Ethiopians. Although the Bible doesn't mention these events, the historian Josephus states the following: " A state of war broke out between the Egyptians and the Ethiopians. At this time Moses had grown to be a man. The two sides fought a great battle in which the Ethiopians were triumphant, and they pushed to conquer all of Egypt. The Egyptians looking for help inquired of their priests. The priests revealed to them that they should make Moses their general . . . Moses then became the commander of a great army In a surprise attack against the Ethiopians, Moses led his troops to victory." It may be that Thutmose III, being jealous, took credit for victories over the Ethiopians, even though Moses achieved them. Josephus also mentions that Moses married an Ethiopian woman after this conflict: "Because of the bravery of Moses, The daughter of the king of Ethiopia, Tharbis, saw Moses and fell madly in love with him. She sent to him a delegation of her most trusted servants to propose marriage. He accepted, on the condition that she would surrender the city over to him After Moses had punished the Ethiopians, he praised God and then celebrated his marriage." The Bible also mentions his Ethiopian wife in Numbers12:1: "Then Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Ethiopian woman whom he had married; for he had married an Ethiopian woman." Josephus also writes: "The Pharaoh, from whom Moses had fled, died, and a new Pharaoh had become ruler. Moses traveled to his palace and told him of the victories he gained for Egypt in the war against Ethiopia He also spoke to Pharaoh about what had taken place on Mount Sinai, and when Pharaoh laughed, Moses showed him the signs." According to the Bible, after the ten plagues God sent against Egypt, Israel departed, but Pharaoh led his army in pursuit of them at the Red Sea. The Bible records the following: "So the Egyptians pursued them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, his horsemen and his army, and overtook them . . . And when Pharaoh drew near, the children of Israel lifted their eyes, and behold, the Egyptians marched after them. So they were very afraid, and the children of Israel cried out to the LORD Then the waters returned and covered the chariots, the horsemen, and all the armies of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them. Not so much as one of them remained." Exodus 14:23-28 The Bible says in Psalm 136:13-15: "To him who divided the Red Sea asunder, and brought Israel in the midst of it, but swept Pharaoh and his army into the Red Sea." This passage indicates that Pharaoh was killed in the incident. If so, the date of the Exodus in 1447 B.C., as calculated from the Bible, is synonymous with Pharaoh Thutmose III death which most historians approximate at 1450 B.C. If indeed Thutmose III was the Pharaoh of the Exodus, his acts recorded in history would have been consistent with how the Bible portrays him as personally leading his army against the Israelites. The following inscription was found in Egyptian records detailing one of his well-known military campaigns where he personally led his army against the Canaanites at the fortress of Megiddo: "Then the king moved to the front of his army . . . Where his majesty [Thutmose III] triumphed over them as leader of his troops." Some people don't believe that the Pharaoh perished in the waters of the Red Sea because the tombs of both Pharaoh Thutmose III and his successor, Amenhotep II, have been found. But if one reads Exodus 14:30 carefully it states the following: "So the LORD saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the seashore." This passage indicates that the dead bodies of the Egyptians were deposited on the shore of the Red Sea. This would have allowed the Egyptians access to his body for burial. Thutmoses III 2) AMENHOTEP II - EXODUS PHARAOH? If Moses fled from Thutmose III, the Exodus pharaoh would have been his son, Amenhotep II. One amazing fact about Amenhotep II was that his successor was not his firstborn son nor his heir. This would confirm the biblical passage in Exodus 4:22-23 which states: "Then you shall say to Pharaoh, 'Thus says the LORD: "Israel is My son, My firstborn. "So I say to you, let My son go that he may serve Me. But if you refuse to let him go, indeed I will kill your son, your firstborn.” 8

9 1. Rameses Israel was thrust out of Egypt (Ex. 12; Num. 33:5).
2. Succoth After the Hebrews left this first campsite, the Lord attended them in a cloud by day and in a pillar of fire by night (Ex. 13:20-22). 3. Pi-hahiroth Israel passed through the Red Sea (Ex. 14; Num. 33:8). 4. Marah The Lord healed the waters of Marah (Ex. 15:23-26). 5. Elim Israel camped by 12 springs (Ex. 15:27). 6. Wilderness of Sin The Lord sent manna and quail to feed Israel (Ex. 16). 7. Rephidim Israel fought with Amalek (Ex. 17:8-16). 8. Mount Sinai (Mount Horeb or Jebel Musa) The Lord revealed the Ten Commandments (Ex ). 9. Sinai Wilderness Israel constructed the tabernacle (Ex ). 10. Wilderness Camps Seventy elders were called to help Moses govern the people (Num. 11:16-17). 11. Ezion-geber Israel passed through the lands of Esau and Ammon in peace (Deut. 2). 12. Kadesh-barnea Moses sent spies into the promised land; Israel rebelled and failed to enter the land; Kadesh served as the main camp of Israel for many years (Num. 13:1-3, 17-33; 14; 32:8; Deut. 2:14). 13. Eastern Wilderness Israel avoided conflict with Edom and Moab (Num. 20:14-21; 22-24). 14. Arnon River Israel destroyed the Canaanites who fought against them (Deut. 2:24-37). 15. Mount Nebo Moses viewed the promised land (Deut. 34:1-4). Moses delivered his last three sermons (Deut. 1-32). 16. Plains of Moab The Lord told Israel to divide the land and dispossess the inhabitants (Num. 33:50-56). 17. Jordan River Israel crossed the Jordan River on dry ground. Near Gilgal, stones from the bottom of the Jordan River were placed as a monument of Jordan’s waters being divided (Josh. 3-5). 18. Jericho The children of Israel possessed and destroyed the city (Josh. 6).


11 Rulers of Egypt in Exodus
Ahmose I ( BC) Founder of the New Kingdom after the expulsion of the Hyksos rulers, consolidated borders Initiated temple building projects Amenhotep (1548-~1528) Thutmose I (~ BC) Meaning “Born of Thoth” Thoth the Egyptian god of wisdom Moses’ early childhood Therefore Moses would be Egyptian “Born of” and Mu meaning water Ahmose I [ah-moes, -mohs] Thutmose I Thut·mo·se I [thoot-moe-suh, -mohs] Not son of Amenhotep I, but a military man who was very closely connected Married the daughter of Ahmose I, thus married into royal blood line Brilliant military campaigns (rapid and effective) Set tone for the illustrious 18th Dynasty 11

12 Rulers of Egypt in Exodus
Thutmose II ( ) Moses from about age 8 until 21 Thutmose III ( ) Queen Hatshepsut ( , co-regency) He is called the Napoleon of Ancient Egypt He created the largest empire Egypt had ever seen Moses kills Egyptian; identifies with his brethren (Heb. 11:24-26) then leaves Egypt (1486 BC, Ex 2:11-15) Moses dwells in Midian 40 years (Acts 7:30) Thutmose II Third son of Thutmose I (two older sons died) Since a son by a minor wife, princess Mutnefert, he was married to his half-sister, Hatshepsut, elder daughter of Thutmose I and Queen Ahmose, to strengthen his position as king A couple military campaigns, but in poor health, and died in his early thirties Had one very young son, Thutmose III, by Isis, a harem girl, and declared him his successor before he died His wife, Hatshepsut, initially acted as regent for the very young king, and soon had usurped her stepson’s position as pharaoh Reigned a lengthy 54 years; only a child when father died Usurped by step-mother for nearly twenty years Great reputation as a builder and military leader; considered by many as the greatest pharaoh of EgyptBuilt Egypt to its greatest power and glory; Led seventeen military campaigns Called “Napoleon of ancient Egypt” Pharaoh of oppression; death recorded in Exodus 2:23 King of Upper & Lower Egypt Menkheper Ra Son of Ra Thetmess 12

13 Rulers of Egypt in Exodus
Amenhotep II ( ) Seventh pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty Son of Thutmose III (but not the eldest son) Successful military campaigns Considered to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus Firstborn slain in the last plague (Ex 12:29) His eldest son did not follow him to throne. over, after “Dream Inscription of Thutmose IV” Notes Archaeologists give us great detail on the Pharaohs of Moses’ time Mummies have been found for each of the Pharaohs Thutmose II Third son of Thutmose I (two older sons died) Since a son by a minor wife, princess Mutnefert, he was married to his half-sister, Hatshepsut, elder daughter of Thutmose I and Queen Ahmose, to strengthen his position as king A couple military campaigns, but in poor health, and died in his early thirties Had one very young son, Thutmose III, by Isis, a harem girl, and declared him his successor before he died His wife, Hatshepsut, initially acted as regent for the very young king, and soon had usurped her stepson’s position as pharaoh Reigned a lengthy 54 years; only a child when father died Usurped by step-mother for nearly twenty years Great reputation as a builder and military leader; considered by many as the greatest pharaoh of EgyptBuilt Egypt to its greatest power and glory; Led seventeen military campaigns Called “Napoleon of ancient Egypt” Pharaoh of oppression; death recorded in Exodus 2:23 13

14 Amenhotep II Amenhotep II was the son of Thutmose III and a minor wife of the king: Merytre-Hatshepsut. He was not, however, the firstborn son of this pharaoh; his elder brother Amenemhat, the son of the great king's chief wife Satiah, was originally the intended heir to the throne since Amenemhat was designated the 'king's eldest son" and overseer of the cattle of Amun in Year 24 of Thutmose's reign.

15 Ref: Constable

16 Events in Shur (15:22-27) Wilderness of Shur
Desert area east of Egypt’s territory, separating Egypt from Paleistine Thin vegetation, few people, short rainy season Encountered an oasis called Marah Three days after the Red Sea crossing Water not suitable for drinking, the people complain People expected God to provide a problem-free journey Moses tosses a piece of wood into the water and it becomes drinkable God changed the water At Elim, God provides 12 springs and 70 palm trees Exodus 15:22-18:27 (New International Version) The Waters of Marah and Elim  22 Then Moses led Israel from the Red Sea and they went into the Desert of Shur. For three days they traveled in the desert without finding water. 23 When they came to Marah, they could not drink its water because it was bitter. (That is why the place is called Marah. [a] ) 24 So the people grumbled against Moses, saying, "What are we to drink?"  25 Then Moses cried out to the LORD, and the LORD showed him a piece of wood. He threw it into the water, and the water became sweet.       There the LORD made a decree and a law for them, and there he tested them. 26 He said, "If you listen carefully to the voice of the LORD your God and do what is right in his eyes, if you pay attention to his commands and keep all his decrees, I will not bring on you any of the diseases I brought on the Egyptians, for I am the LORD, who heals you."  27 Then they came to Elim, where there were twelve springs and seventy palm trees, and they camped there near the water. 16

17 Desert of Sin (16:1-22) Israelites leave Elim
Travel through the Desert of Sin About six weeks after departing from Egypt Israelites begin to complain again Food and water become an issue again Begin loosing faith God intervenes through Moses, but decides to test them Gives them specific instructions on gathering food Gather only enough for your needs for that day Some disobey (lack of faith) the food ruins before the next day Exodus 16 Manna and Quail  1 The whole Israelite community set out from Elim and came to the Desert of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after they had come out of Egypt. 2 In the desert the whole community grumbled against Moses and Aaron. 3 The Israelites said to them, "If only we had died by the LORD's hand in Egypt! There we sat around pots of meat and ate all the food we wanted, but you have brought us out into this desert to starve this entire assembly to death."  4 Then the LORD said to Moses, "I will rain down bread from heaven for you. The people are to go out each day and gather enough for that day. In this way I will test them and see whether they will follow my instructions. 5 On the sixth day they are to prepare what they bring in, and that is to be twice as much as they gather on the other days."  6 So Moses and Aaron said to all the Israelites, "In the evening you will know that it was the LORD who brought you out of Egypt, 7 and in the morning you will see the glory of the LORD, because he has heard your grumbling against him. Who are we, that you should grumble against us?" 8 Moses also said, "You will know that it was the LORD when he gives you meat to eat in the evening and all the bread you want in the morning, because he has heard your grumbling against him. Who are we? You are not grumbling against us, but against the LORD."  9 Then Moses told Aaron, "Say to the entire Israelite community, 'Come before the LORD, for he has heard your grumbling.' "  10 While Aaron was speaking to the whole Israelite community, they looked toward the desert, and there was the glory of the LORD appearing in the cloud.  11 The LORD said to Moses, 12 "I have heard the grumbling of the Israelites. Tell them, 'At twilight you will eat meat, and in the morning you will be filled with bread. Then you will know that I am the LORD your God.' "  13 That evening quail came and covered the camp, and in the morning there was a layer of dew around the camp. 14 When the dew was gone, thin flakes like frost on the ground appeared on the desert floor. 15 When the Israelites saw it, they said to each other, "What is it?" For they did not know what it was.       Moses said to them, "It is the bread the LORD has given you to eat. 16 This is what the LORD has commanded: 'Each one is to gather as much as he needs. Take an omer [b] for each person you have in your tent.' "  17 The Israelites did as they were told; some gathered much, some little. 18 And when they measured it by the omer, he who gathered much did not have too much, and he who gathered little did not have too little. Each one gathered as much as he needed.  19 Then Moses said to them, "No one is to keep any of it until morning."  20 However, some of them paid no attention to Moses; they kept part of it until morning, but it was full of maggots and began to smell. So Moses was angry with them.  21 Each morning everyone gathered as much as he needed, and when the sun grew hot, it melted away. 22 On the sixth day, they gathered twice as much—two omers [c] for each person—and the leaders of the community came and reported this to Moses. 17

18 Sabbath (16:23-36) God commands to keep the Sabbath holy
Six days of gathering, none on the seventh day Food saved for that day did not ruin No one is to go out on the Sabbath and gather food A day of rest However, some Israelites disobeyed (lack of faith) Bread is called Manna Retained and remembered for generations Eat Manna for forty years 23 He said to them, "This is what the LORD commanded: 'Tomorrow is to be a day of rest, a holy Sabbath to the LORD. So bake what you want to bake and boil what you want to boil. Save whatever is left and keep it until morning.' "  24 So they saved it until morning, as Moses commanded, and it did not stink or get maggots in it. 25 "Eat it today," Moses said, "because today is a Sabbath to the LORD. You will not find any of it on the ground today. 26 Six days you are to gather it, but on the seventh day, the Sabbath, there will not be any."  27 Nevertheless, some of the people went out on the seventh day to gather it, but they found none. 28 Then the LORD said to Moses, "How long will you [d] refuse to keep my commands and my instructions? 29 Bear in mind that the LORD has given you the Sabbath; that is why on the sixth day he gives you bread for two days. Everyone is to stay where he is on the seventh day; no one is to go out." 30 So the people rested on the seventh day.  31 The people of Israel called the bread manna. [e] It was white like coriander seed and tasted like wafers made with honey. 32 Moses said, "This is what the LORD has commanded: 'Take an omer of manna and keep it for the generations to come, so they can see the bread I gave you to eat in the desert when I brought you out of Egypt.' "  33 So Moses said to Aaron, "Take a jar and put an omer of manna in it. Then place it before the LORD to be kept for the generations to come."  34 As the LORD commanded Moses, Aaron put the manna in front of the Testimony, that it might be kept. 35 The Israelites ate manna forty years, until they came to a land that was settled; they ate manna until they reached the border of Canaan.  36 (An omer is one tenth of an ephah.) 18

19 God Rescues Israelites Again (17:1-15)
Israelites complain again because of no water Again, a lack of faith, wanting to test God Moses takes these issues to God God provides the relief Using the staff of Moses again Strike the rock at Horeb and water will flow Called the place Massah and Meribah Amalekites Defeated Amalekites attack the Israelites at Rephidim Israel fights back and God works through Moses to bring them victory Joshua becomes a key figure Exodus 17 Water From the Rock  1 The whole Israelite community set out from the Desert of Sin, traveling from place to place as the LORD commanded. They camped at Rephidim, but there was no water for the people to drink. 2 So they quarreled with Moses and said, "Give us water to drink."       Moses replied, "Why do you quarrel with me? Why do you put the LORD to the test?"  3 But the people were thirsty for water there, and they grumbled against Moses. They said, "Why did you bring us up out of Egypt to make us and our children and livestock die of thirst?"  4 Then Moses cried out to the LORD, "What am I to do with these people? They are almost ready to stone me."  5 The LORD answered Moses, "Walk on ahead of the people. Take with you some of the elders of Israel and take in your hand the staff with which you struck the Nile, and go. 6 I will stand there before you by the rock at Horeb. Strike the rock, and water will come out of it for the people to drink." So Moses did this in the sight of the elders of Israel. 7 And he called the place Massah [f] and Meribah [g] because the Israelites quarreled and because they tested the LORD saying, "Is the LORD among us or not?" The Amalekites Defeated  8 The Amalekites came and attacked the Israelites at Rephidim. 9 Moses said to Joshua, "Choose some of our men and go out to fight the Amalekites. Tomorrow I will stand on top of the hill with the staff of God in my hands."  10 So Joshua fought the Amalekites as Moses had ordered, and Moses, Aaron and Hur went to the top of the hill. 11 As long as Moses held up his hands, the Israelites were winning, but whenever he lowered his hands, the Amalekites were winning. 12 When Moses' hands grew tired, they took a stone and put it under him and he sat on it. Aaron and Hur held his hands up—one on one side, one on the other—so that his hands remained steady till sunset. 13 So Joshua overcame the Amalekite army with the sword.  14 Then the LORD said to Moses, "Write this on a scroll as something to be remembered and make sure that Joshua hears it, because I will completely blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven."  15 Moses built an altar and called it The LORD is my Banner. 16 He said, "For hands were lifted up to the throne of the LORD. The [h] LORD will be at war against the Amalekites from generation to generation." 19

20 Amalekites Amalek was the son of Eliphaz and grandson of Esau (Gen 36:12, 1 Chr 1:36) Chief of the Edomite tribe (Gen 36:16) Rulers called Agag Arab tradition relates that the Amalekites originzted in the region of Mecca (Saudi Arabia) Interaction with Israelites Attack at Rephidim (Ex 17:8-10) Attack at Hormah (Num 14:45) Against Ehud (Judges 3:13) Against Gideon (Judges 6:3) Israel ordered to kill all Amalekites (1 Sam 15:2-3) 20

21 Jethro visits Moses (18:1-27)
Jethro hears of God work through Moses Jethro is the priest of Midian and father-in-law of Moses Moses had sent his family to live with Jethro They all travel back to be with Moses Moses shares the story of God’s deliverance Moses had been serving as the sole judge among the people From morning to night Jethro suggests that he appoint Israelites to become judges to hear the lesser problems Judges of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens Moses followed his advice Exodus 18 Jethro Visits Moses  1 Now Jethro, the priest of Midian and father-in-law of Moses, heard of everything God had done for Moses and for his people Israel, and how the LORD had brought Israel out of Egypt.  2 After Moses had sent away his wife Zipporah, his father-in-law Jethro received her 3 and her two sons. One son was named Gershom, [i] for Moses said, "I have become an alien in a foreign land"; 4 and the other was named Eliezer, [j] for he said, "My father's God was my helper; he saved me from the sword of Pharaoh."  5 Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, together with Moses' sons and wife, came to him in the desert, where he was camped near the mountain of God. 6 Jethro had sent word to him, "I, your father-in-law Jethro, am coming to you with your wife and her two sons."  7 So Moses went out to meet his father-in-law and bowed down and kissed him. They greeted each other and then went into the tent. 8 Moses told his father-in-law about everything the LORD had done to Pharaoh and the Egyptians for Israel's sake and about all the hardships they had met along the way and how the LORD had saved them.  9 Jethro was delighted to hear about all the good things the LORD had done for Israel in rescuing them from the hand of the Egyptians. 10 He said, "Praise be to the LORD, who rescued you from the hand of the Egyptians and of Pharaoh, and who rescued the people from the hand of the Egyptians. 11 Now I know that the LORD is greater than all other gods, for he did this to those who had treated Israel arrogantly." 12 Then Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, brought a burnt offering and other sacrifices to God, and Aaron came with all the elders of Israel to eat bread with Moses' father-in-law in the presence of God.  13 The next day Moses took his seat to serve as judge for the people, and they stood around him from morning till evening. 14 When his father-in-law saw all that Moses was doing for the people, he said, "What is this you are doing for the people? Why do you alone sit as judge, while all these people stand around you from morning till evening?"  15 Moses answered him, "Because the people come to me to seek God's will. 16 Whenever they have a dispute, it is brought to me, and I decide between the parties and inform them of God's decrees and laws."  17 Moses' father-in-law replied, "What you are doing is not good. 18 You and these people who come to you will only wear yourselves out. The work is too heavy for you; you cannot handle it alone. 19 Listen now to me and I will give you some advice, and may God be with you. You must be the people's representative before God and bring their disputes to him. 20 Teach them the decrees and laws, and show them the way to live and the duties they are to perform. 21 But select capable men from all the people—men who fear God, trustworthy men who hate dishonest gain—and appoint them as officials over thousands, hundreds, fifties and tens. 22 Have them serve as judges for the people at all times, but have them bring every difficult case to you; the simple cases they can decide themselves. That will make your load lighter, because they will share it with you. 23 If you do this and God so commands, you will be able to stand the strain, and all these people will go home satisfied."  24 Moses listened to his father-in-law and did everything he said. 25 He chose capable men from all Israel and made them leaders of the people, officials over thousands, hundreds, fifties and tens. 26 They served as judges for the people at all times. The difficult cases they brought to Moses, but the simple ones they decided themselves.  27 Then Moses sent his father-in-law on his way, and Jethro returned to his own country. Footnotes: Exodus 15:23 Marah means bitter . Exodus 16:16 That is, probably about 2 quarts (about 2 liters also in verses 18, 32, 33 and 36 Exodus 16:22 That is, probably about 4 quarts (about 4.5 liters) Exodus 16:28 The Hebrew is plural. Exodus 16:31 Manna means What is it? (see verse 15). Exodus 17:7 Massah means testing . Exodus 17:7 Meribah means quarreling . Exodus 17:16 Or "Because a hand was against the throne of the LORD , the Exodus 18:3 Gershom sounds like the Hebrew for an alien there . Exodus 18:4 Eliezer means my God is helper . 21

22 Review Reviewed lesson from 07 Apr 10 (cross the sea)
Reviewed historical maps of the region Learned about challenges to the Israelite’s faith after they pass through the sea In Marah In Elim Desert of Sin Learned about God’s commands concerning the Sabbath Learned about the battle with the Amalekites Learned about Jethro’s visit with Moses Next week: Mosaic Covenant: Exodus 19:1-24:11

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