Presentation on theme: "Case Study: Britain Sayge Cullop, Dylan Chadwick, Kelli Uresti, Colin Dillon, Danika Gottbrecht and James Whitsett."— Presentation transcript:
Case Study: Britain Sayge Cullop, Dylan Chadwick, Kelli Uresti, Colin Dillon, Danika Gottbrecht and James Whitsett
Making of a Modern State Britain is the largest of the British Isles, comprised of England, Scotland and Wales Great Britain includes Northern Ireland, England comprises 84% of the UK Currency: Pound (£) 1 Geography
Making of a Modern State Ethnic Breakdown In 2007, population was 60.8 billion 2 92.1% white 2% black 1.8% Indian 1.6% other 1.3% Pakistani 1.2% Mixed
Making of a Modern State History Britain used to be full monarch system until 1236, when a group of feudal barons acting as parliament was asked for taxation consent By the 15 th century, Parliament gained legislative rights 3 Due to colonial expansion, Britain was known as a superpower until the end of WWII and the Suez Crisis (1956). It possessed a powerful navy and peaked in wealth in 1900, and size from 1920-1940 4 Poet Philippe de Mezieres presenting his book to Richard II. British Library.
Making of a Modern State The industrial revolution had a profound impact on British culture, making the country more democratic Led to a higher standard of living and replaced skilled workers with advanced machinery
Making of a Modern State The role of the monarchy has diminished over time, leading us to ask the question: is the royal family necessary for the political structure of Britain, or simply for show? How much longer will it last?
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION Prime Minister (PM): David Cameron Current Reigning Monarch: Queen Elizabeth II The PM is elected first as a Member of Parliament (MP), then the Queen invites the leader of the party who can control the majority of the Commons to become PM 5
REPRESENTATION AND PARTICIPATION House of Lords Higher house of Parliament Unelected body consisting of “heriditary peers and “life peers” 740 members (2011) Possess ability to debate, refine, and delay legislation, but cannot block it House of Commons Lower house of parliament 650 seats Three functions: 1. pass laws 2. provide finances for the state through taxation and 3. to review public administration and government policy Bicameral Model - Parliament
General elections are reserved for the Commons, with elections taking place every 5 years (the next is May 7, 2015) Citizens vote to elect ‘candidates’ to the Commons, the representative with the most votes in each area wins a seat Political parties compete to form the government by winning constituency elections; if a party is able to win more than half the seats in the Commons, the leader becomes PM and all other parties become the opposition Hung Parliament : no single party wins more than half the seats in the Commons, leads to Coalition Governments 6
Governance & Policy Making Legislative Process: Bills must be introduced in both the Commons and the Lords, read, circulated, then debated (First Reading) The bill is then voted on in the Second Reading The bill is considered in final form, voted on without debate The final step of the process is royal assent, which formally declares the bill as an Act of Parliament 7
Governance and Policy Making Britain functions through “Westminster Model”, meaning that carrying out democracy is in the hands of Parliament as the supreme authority of the legislature No formal written constitution, operates as a constitutional monarchy Britain operated under the parliamentary sovereignty doctrine, granting the legislature the power to make or overturn any law 8
“Thank you Contoso for providing access to the tools I need to do my job! Beautiful!” ~Contoso Customer, Spokane, Washington Governance and Policy Making Unitary State : contrasts a federal system (like that of the US) where no power is reserved for subnational/smaller units of government (like states) Fusion of Powers: parliament acts as supreme legislative, executive, and judicial authority, which includes a monarch, House of Common & Lords 9
Britain’s history is heavily influenced by its colonial expansion and the Industrial Revolution Britain soon came to rely on imported raw materials by 1800 through selling its goods overseas, primarily in Africa and America International trade made Britain and international power, dominating militarily and economically up until WWI 10
Welfare State Post WWII, Labour Party is in power, creates welfare state in favor of a socialist model Citizens sacrifice personal/private ownership Modern economy relies heavily on taxation, while providing free education and other benefits (though college tuition has recently tripled) 11
Britain is abundant in natural gas, oil, and coal Self-sufficient in petroleum Main trade partners include the EU (specifically Germany, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands) along with China and the US Due to its early colonial expansion, Britain was known as a “hegemonic power”, controlling alliances and the international economic order and shaping domestic political developments in countries throughout the world 12
so that our children can enjoy the same resources and beauty that we have for generations. Collectivism: Used to describe the consensus in government post-WWII with the goal of closing the gap between the rich and the poor, bolstering the middle class citizen 13 The current welfare state includes many positive rights, including the access to free public education and healthcare, pensions, unemployment benefits and assistance to the poor In this model, Britain accepts full responsibility for economic growth and employment of its citizens
Thatcherism Margaret Thatcher, Britain’s PM from 1979-90, played an instrumental role in the improvement of the economy with her winning leadership of the Conservative Party in 1975 Known – perhaps infamous – for her drastic cuts in social programming, she jumpstarted the economy, monetarist view From Thatcher’s time through the mid-90’s and early 2000’s, Britain’s economy was faring well in the economic sphere until the 2008 stock market crash Britain’s current policy focuses on macroeconomic policy, which generally targets inflation to promote growth 14
International Relations General Trends “splendid isolation” – late 19 th century not involved in many global affairs with the exception of colonization During colonist expansion, Britain maintained strength and power in the global sphere, until the granting of independence to former British holdings Britain is a great power, no longer a superpower, that is a member of the UN Security Council and maintains relations with the EU David Cameron – “face” and “voice” of Britain, works as a diplomat to carry out domestic and foreign affairs
Politics in Transition Race Relations/Immigration Minorities are subject to unequal treatment by the police and physical harassment by citizens, while facing issues of economic success and job security – death of Stephen Lawrence Relationship with the EU Geographical distance separates Britain from the rest of Europe, causing a divide – trade and economy, relations, etc. Question of the Monarchy Is the monarchy an outdated, unnecessary institution? Should Northern Ireland become independent?
Works Cited Darlington, Roger. "British Political System." British Political System. December 20, 2014. Accessed March 7, 2015. http://www.rogerdarlington.me.uk/Britishpoliticalsystem.html.http://www.rogerdarlington.me.uk/Britishpoliticalsystem.html James, Lawrence. The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996. Kesselman, Mark, Joel Krieger, and William A. Joseph. Introduction to Comparative Politics. 6th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000. 46-87. “How Laws Are Made.” UK Parliament. Accessed March 2, 2015. http://www.parliament.uk/.http://www.parliament.uk/ “General Elections.”UK Parliament. Accessed March 2, 2015. http://www.parliament.uk/.http://www.parliament.uk/
Endnotes 1.Kesselman, Mark, Joel Krieger, and William A. Joseph. Introduction to Comparative Politics. 48. 2. Ibid 3. Ibid, 50. 4. James, Lawrence. The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996. 5. “General Elections.”UK Parliament. Accessed March 2, 2015. http://www.parliament.uk/.http://www.parliament.uk/ 6.Ibid 7. “How Laws Are Made.” UK Parliament. Accessed March 2, 2015. http://www.parliament.uk/.http://www.parliament.uk/ 8. Kesselman, 65.