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GERD Brandon Hoff.

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Presentation on theme: "GERD Brandon Hoff."— Presentation transcript:

1 GERD Brandon Hoff

2 What is GERD? Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Acid Reflux Disease

3 What is GERD? Failure of the gastroesophageal sphincter
Irritation and inflammation of the esophagus from stomach acid Effects 1/3 of the population at least once a month Effects 10% of the population on a daily basis

4 Basic Anatomy of the Upper GI Tract
Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach

5 Gastroesophageal Sphincter
AKA: Lower Esophageal Sphincter; Cardiac Sphincter Ring of muscle on the inferior portion of the esophagus between the esophagus and stomach Prevents food and stomach content from reentering the esophagus

6 Gastroesophageal Sphincter
Normal Function Relaxes during swallowing to allow food to pass Constricts after ingestion to prevent the back flow of food Function with GERD The sphincter relaxes between swallowing which allows stomach content and corrosive acid to enter the esophagus Causes damage to the lining of the esophagus

7 Stomach vs. Esophagus Stomach Esophagus pH Goblet Cells
Goblet Cells Provides an alkaline layer of mucus to protect the stomach lining. Esophagus Around 7.0 No Goblet Cells

8 Causes unclear Things that make the sphincter weaker Lifestyle
Medications Diet Eating Habits Other Medical Problems

9 Lifestyle Alcohol Cigarettes Poor posture (slouching)

10 Medications Calcium Channel Blockers Theophylline

11 Diet Fatty & Fried Foods Chocolate Onions Garlic Caffeine Acidic Foods
Spicy Foods Mint

12 Eating Habits Large Meals Eating 2-3 Hours Before Bedtime

13 Other Medical Causes Hiatal Hernia Pregnancy
Diabetes with Rapid Weight Gain

14 Symptoms Heartburn is the most common
Starts in the upper abdomen and spreads up the neck Can last up to two hours Worse after eating Not everyone with GERD has Regurgitation of bitter acid while sleeping or bending over Bitter taste Persistent dry cough Hoarseness Tightness in throat Wheezing

15 Complications of GERD Esophagitis & Ulcers

16 Complications of GERD (cont)

17 Complications of GERD (cont)

18 Complications of GERD (cont)
Laryngopharyngeal Reflex

19 Complications of GERD (cont)
Respiratory Problems Asthma 75% have GERD

20 Complications of GERD (cont)
Cancer of the Esophagus

21 Treatment Relieve Symptoms Prevent Damage to the Esophagus

22 Medical Treatment Lifestyle changes Medications Antacids PPI’s
Block the production of stomach acid Coating agents Protects mucus membranes and sores by providing another layer Promotility Agents Tightens the sphincter and promotes faster emptying of the stomach Surgery Last option Fundoplication Suturing of the fundus around the inferior part of the esophagus Forms a one-way valve Increases the pressure in the lower portion on the esophagus

23 Emergency Situations in Pt. with GERD
Severe chest pain or pressure Especially if it radiates Vomiting blood Vomiting with chest pain Dark tarry stool Difficulty swallowing solids and liquids

24 Summary What GERD is Causes Complications Treatment
Emergency Management

25 References Donley, Kelli M. "GERD, Asthma Connection Vague: Research Continues." Endonurse.Com. 1 Sept May 2008 <>. "Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)." Emedicinehealth. 10 Aug May 2008 <>. Gillson, Sharon. "Causes of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease." About.Com. 2 Jan May 2008 <>. "Heartburn/GERD Health Center." Webmd. 18 May 2008 <>. Lehrer, Jenifer K. "The Heartburn (Acid Reflex) Health Topic." Mdhelp.Com. 3 May May 2008 <>. "What Causes GERD?" GERD.Com. Nov May 2008 <>.

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