Presentation on theme: "Adult Learning and Motivation Theory EDER 619.33 L04 Professional Development Trends and Learning Kelli Boklaschuk, Jenny Kay Dupuis, and Stacey Lynn Klisowsky."— Presentation transcript:
Adult Learning and Motivation Theory EDER 619.33 L04 Professional Development Trends and Learning Kelli Boklaschuk, Jenny Kay Dupuis, and Stacey Lynn Klisowsky University of Calgary
Overview PD in-service session: “Using a blog to increase levels of communication” Planning effective staff development Concerns-Based Adoption Model. Where do you fit? Strategies to enhance adult motivation to learn How adult learning has evolved
PD In-service Main purpose: To learn to use and navigate a blog. Objectives: –To navigate. –To post a response (comment). –To learn form and function of a blog website. Our blog site - http://blog.scs.sk.ca/adultlearninghttp://blog.scs.sk.ca/adultlearning
Staff Development and the Process of Teacher Change Article Summary Guskey, T. R. (1986, May). Staff development and the process of teacher change. Educational Researcher, 15(5), 5-12.
Overview Staff development programs are designed to alter: –Professional practices –Beliefs –Understanding of school persons toward an articulated end Staff development programs are a systematic attempt to bring about: 1.Change in practices 2.Change in beliefs and attitudes 3.Change in the learning outcomes of students
Becoming a better teacher means enhancing the learning outcomes of the students. How is becoming a better teacher defined?
PD can be traced back to the early 19 th century. The history of staff development is characterized primarily by disorder, conflict and criticism. “Much of what goes for in-service education is uninspiring and ineffective” (Davies,1967). Teachers participate in PD because they believe it will help them be better teachers.
1.PD must offer teachers practical ideas that can be efficiently used to directly enhance desired learning outcomes. 2.Keep the teacher process of change in mind. PD often tries to begin by changing the beliefs of teachers first. Important Factors of PD
An Alternative Model
This model suggests a different temporal sequence among the three major outcomes of staff development. Staff Development Change in Teachers’ Beliefs and Attitudes Change in Teachers’ Classroom Practices Change in Student Learning Outcomes (Guskey, 1986, p. 7)
Support for the Model “Bolster (1983) emphasizes that ideas and principles about teaching are believed to be true by teachers only “when they give rise to actions that ‘work’ ”. “According to Bolster, efforts to improve education must begin by recognizing that teachers knowledge of teaching is validated very pragmatically, and that without verification from the classroom, attitude change among teachers with regard to any new program or innovation is very unlikely”. (as cited in Guskey, 1986, p. 7)
Support for the Model Teacher commitment was found to develop primarily after implementation. Fullan (1985) notes that “changes in attitude, beliefs, and understanding generally followed rather than preceded changes in behaviour”. (as cited in Guskey, 1986, p. 7)
A Similar Model (Proposed 100 years ago) Psychologist William James theorized that the important factor in an emotion is feedback from bodily changes that occur in response to a particular situation. –Ex: We see a bear and run therefore we are afraid. Teacher’s beliefs and attitudes are primarily a result rather than a cause.
Staff Development Implications 1.Recognize that change is a gradual and difficult process for teachers. 2.Ensure that teachers receive regular feedback on student learning progress. 3.Provide continued support and follow- up after the initial training.
Research Questions Is change a process rather than an event? How can we find ways to help teachers translate new knowledge into practice? Can we find better methods of providing teachers with feedback, as well as find better ways of measuring these variables?
Points to Ponder… Consider these three principles in planning PD 1.Recognize that change is a gradual and difficult process for teachers. 2.Ensure that teachers receive regular feedback on student learning progress. 3.Provide continued support and follow-up after the initial training.
Group Discussion Question Now, reflect on your experience with the blog PD. What elements were not considered in the creation of the PD?
Understanding the Adult Learner Article Summary of “Tornado of Change”
Adult learners all come with preconceived expectations…
“The teacher only appears when the student is ready to learn.” ( Hindu proverb)
The Adult Learner is… Autonomous and self directed Full of life experience and knowledge Goal orientated Relevancy orientated Practical Deserving of respect
Professional Development (PD) facilitators and organizational leaders need to recognize that for PD to be effective, implementation must address the needs of the adult learner. “The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) is a framework and set of tools for understanding and managing change in people” (Horsley and Loucks-Horsley, 1998 p.1).
The CBAM model identifies three stages of developmental process: 1.Stages of Concern – this is the affective dimension that addresses how people feel about having to do something new or different. Awareness – unaware or unengaged Self Concern – Informational - “What must I do?” - Personal – “How will this affect me?” Task Concern – Management – “What do I need to do this? Impact Concern – Consequence – “How will I do this? - Collaboration – “Who can I work with?” - Refocusing – “How can I make this better?” (Horsley and Loucks-Horsley, 1998, p. 1-2)
2. Levels of Use – the behavioral dimension of change “Non” Use – no implementation attempts Orientation – seeks information Preparation – adoption of new process Once the choice to implement has been made, support will need to be given as levels of use grow from mechanical to routine to refinement to integration and through renewal. (Horsley and Loucks- Horsley, 1998)
3. Innovation Components – identifying the change. What should the implementation look like if done successfully? Practice Profiles should consist of: description of resources and conditions needed for implementation. identification of standards descriptive examples (Horsley and Loucks-Horsley, 1998)
Key Messages Change is a process, not an event. Change is a highly personal experience. Knowledge of CBAM will assist staff developers in diminishing resistance (Horsley and Loucks-Horsley, 1998). Adult Learners do not submit to the “just do it” philosophy. Learning opportunities need to make sense and be seen as purposeful.
Points to Ponder… 1. Reflecting on the blog activity, at what stage of concern do you see yourself? Why? 2. How might it have been possible to change your level of concern, if at all? 3. What supports would you require to implement the blog as a system of communication for your work environment?
Strategies to Enhance Adult Motivation to Learn Author: Raymond J. Wlodkowski
What is Needed? Need to know more about it. How to influence it? Note: Wlodrowski’s article examines current knowledge/research, and how to influence adult motivation to learn
Levels of Positive Adult Motivation Motivational FactorsLearning DescriptionStrategic Attitudes / Actions for Teachers First Level Expectancy for success + a sense of volition Able to master learning.Maintain positive expectations. Make learning worthwhile. (move from resistance to acceptance). Second Level Expectancy for success + a sense of volition + value Looks for the benefits. (meaningful & worthwhile). Not enjoyable. Make intended benefits known. Offer choices. Third level Expectancy for success + a sense of volition + value + enjoyment Learn to value and want to learn for personal pleasure (not always easy tasks). Provide activities that generate enjoyment. (Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 93-95)
Planning for Learner Motivation Main FactorsDescription of FactorResult AttitudeCombines concepts, information, and emotions. Response toward people, groups, ideas, events, or objects. NeedInternal forces push toward reaching goal. Stronger internal forces = increased likelihood to reach goal. StimulationChange in perception or experience with environment that makes one active. Stimulates and sustains adult learning. AffectEmotional feelings while learning.Sustains involvement and interest if positive feelings exist. Harmony needed between thinking and emotions (p. 97). CompetenceCompetence theory: people strive for effective interactions Learners need to be aware of success. ReinforcementReinforcement effects the probability of the response. Positive reinforcement often leads to continued involvement/success (Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 95-97)
Time Continuum Model of Motivation Time PhasesLearners Six Major Motivation Factors*Instructional Design Questions** Beginning Enters process. 1) Attitude - Toward learning environment, instructor, subject matter, self. 2) Needs - Basic needs within learner. A. What can I do to establish a positive learner attitude for this learning sequence? B. How do I best meet the needs of my learners through this learning sequence? During Involved in the content. 3) Stimulation - Stimulation processes. 4) Affect - Affective or emotional experience. C. What about this learning sequence will continuously stimulate my learners? D. How is the affective experience and emotional climate for this learning sequence positive for learners? Ending Completing the process. 5) Competence - Competence value result of the behaviour. 6) Reinforcement - Reinforcement value attached to learning experience. E. How does this learning sequence increase or affirm learner feelings of competence? F. What is the reinforcement that this learning sequence provides for my learners? (Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 98- 100) *Not all motivational factors are equal. Plan for at least one motivational factor in each phase. ** Positive motivational factors needs to sustain learning.
Six Strategies for Motivation Attitude - Ensure successful Learning. - Safe, successful, interesting intro. to new topics. -Stress amount and quality of effort needed for success prior. -Set clear learning goals. -Provide evaluation criteria. - Allow for self- determination / autonomy. Need - Know and emphasize felt needs of learners (ask learners what they want out of experience). - Provide opportunity to publically share what learned or produced. Stimulation - Provide variety in processes and materials. - New learning experiences that connects with prior knowledge. Affect -Connect abstract content to what’s personal and familiar. -Use cooperative goal structures to plan/achieve joint goals. Competence -Consistent and prompt feedback. -Use performance evaluation procedures. Reinforcement -Positive reinforcement for routine, well- learned, complex, and drill-and- practice activities. -Help learners be aware of results / natural consequences. (Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 101 - 110)
“The teacher’s knowledge of learners’ motivation, subject matter, instructional situation, and time constraints will determine the quality and quantity of the motivational strategies employed.” (Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 101)
Table5.1: Six Questions Based on the Time Continuum Model of Motivation as Applied by an Adult Basic Education Instructor Instructional Objective: After 2 weeks, learners will add and subtract mixed fractions at a 90% achievement level. QuestionWhen UsedMotivational StrategyLearning Activity or Instructor Behaviour 1. What can I do to establish a positive learner attitude for this learning sequence? Beginning of the learning sequence.Positively confront the possible erroneous beliefs, expectations, and assumptions that may underly a negative. Ask learners how many have heard that fractions are really difficult to do and discuss with them their feelings and expectations. 2. How do I best meet the needs of my learners through this learning sequence? Beginning of the learning sequence.Reduce or remove components of the learning environment that lead to failure or fear. Organize a tutorial assistance plan by which learners who are having difficulty can receive immediate help from the instructor or a fellow learner. 3. What about his learning sequence will continuously stimulate my learners? During the main phase of the learning sequence. Whenever possible, make learner reaction and involvement essential parts of the learning process, i.e. problem solving, games, role- playing, simulation. Use games and creative problems to challenge and invite daily learner participation. 4. How is the affective or emotional climate for this learning sequence positive for the learners? During the main phase of the learning sequence. Use a cooperative goal structure to maximize learner involvement and sharing. Have teams of learners solve fraction problems with one member of the team responsible for diagnosing the problem, another responsible for finding the common denominator, another working it through, and another for checking the answer, alternate roles. 5. How does this learning sequence increase or affirm learner feelings of competence? Ending o the learning sequence.Provide consistent feedback regarding mastery of learning. Use answer sheets and diagnostic and formative tests to give feedback and assistance to learners. 6. What is the reinforcement that this learning sequence provides for my learners? Ending of the learning sequence.When learning has natural consequences, allow them to be congruently evident. Construct a “class test” where each learner creates a mixed fraction word problem for the other learners to solve. Each learner is responsible for checking and, if necessary, helping the other learners to solve the problem. (Wlodrowski, 1985, as cited in Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 102-103 )
Template: Applying Motivational Strategies to Learning Activity / Instructor Behaviour Table: Instructional Objective: QuestionWhen UsedMotivational StrategyLearning Activity or Instructor Behaviour 1. What can I do to establish a positive learner attitude for this learning sequence? 2. How do I best meet the needs of my learners through this learning sequence? 3. What about his learning sequence will continuously stimulate my learners? 4. How is the affective or emotional climate for this learning sequence positive for the learners? 5. How does this learning sequence increase or affirm learner feelings of competence? 6. What is the reinforcement that this learning sequence provides for my learners? (Adapted from Wlodrowski, 1985, as cited in Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 102-103 )
Small Group Activity In groups, reflect on the PD session delivered earlier. How would you facilitate the PD session differently to account for adult learning and motivational theories? Use the template provided to help structure your thoughts.
“Whether these strategies are offered as part of a motivation plan or as part of some other instructional approach, they have their best chance for success if they are within the repertoire of a person who teaches with enthusiasm.” (Wlodrowski, 1984, as cited in Wlodrowski, 2004, p. 110)
Main Motivation Factors to Connect and Apply Training to Workplace Trainee attitudes, interest, values, expectation (Neo, 1986) Follow-up from manager anticipated (Baldwin, Mgjuka, and Lohrer, 1991). Opportunities for advancement and rewards for teamwork (Kontoghiorphest, 2001) Reflected as positive performance, chance for future advancement/promotion (Clark, Dobbins, Ladd, 1993) Mutual decision between supervisor and employee (part of training plan) Workplace credibility Self-efficacy (Bandara, 1991; Schwoerer et al., 2005) Post-training / sharing with peers or management / feedback (Daffon & North, 2006) Characteristics – abilities, aptitudes, personality traits (Broad & Newton, 1992) Supportive climate: individual coaching, peer mentoring, involvement of participants in planning (Merriam & Leahy, 2005) (as cited in Alahaweh, 2008)
Need to develop programs that aim to increase and sustain motivation. Thus, schools leaders may examine some of the following concepts; –Epstein’s learner-oriented model –Four pillars practice: Team/partnering with colleagues, teacher leadership roles, shared leadership, inquiry, mentoring (Drago- Severson, 2006). –Kegan’s constructive-developmental model –Means of communication / feedback –Other?
Andragogy and Self – Directed Learning: Pillars of Adult Learning Theory Article Summary of
Andragogy The art and science of helping adults learn (Knowles, as cited in Merriam, 2001). Assumes: The learner is independent and self directed. Has life experience from which to draw. Has learning needs related to social role changes. Problem-centred. Intrinsically motivated.
Self Directed Learning The Goals: Self Directed Learning Transformational Learning Emancipatory Learning and Social Action
Self Directed Learning The Process: 1970’s - Linear - Tough and Knowles 1980 – 1990 – Interactive - Danis’s Consider learner and learner context
About You… Take a moment and reflect on yourself as a learner… –Do you have any other insights? –Comments? –Questions?
Additional Resources Drago-Severson, E. (2006). Learning-oriented leadership. Independent Journal, 65(4), 58-65. Drago, Severson, E. (2007, January). Helping teachers learn: Principals as professional development leaders. Teachers College Record, 109(1), 70-125. Jorgenson, O., & Peal, C. (2008, March). When principals lose touch with the classroom. Principal, 87(4), 52-55. Retrieved September 14, 2008, from Education Research Complete database. Ovando, M. N. (2005, September). Building instructional leaders’ capacity to deliver constructive feedback to teachers. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 18(3), 171-183. Materna, L. (2007, May). The adult learner: How to engage and motivate adults using brain- compatible strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Whitaker, T., Whitaker, B., & Lumpa, D. (2004, January). Motivating & aspiring teachers: The educational leaders guide for building staff morale. N.A.: Eye on Education. Wlodkowski, R. (2008, March). Enhancing Adult Motivation To Learn: A Comprehensive Guide for Teaching All Adults. N.A.: Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.
References Alawneh, M. (2008). Factors affecting training transfer: Participants’ motivation to transfer training. Penn State University. (Retrieved January 14, 2008, from ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 5016129). Guskey, T. R. (1986, May). Staff development and the process of teacher change. Educational Research, 15(5), 5-12. Horsley, D. L., & Loucks-Horsley, S. (1998). CBAM brings order to the tornado of change. Journal of Staff Development, 19(4), 17-20. Lieb, S. (1991, Fall). Principals of adult learners. Retrieved January 20, 2008, from http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/adults-2.html Merriam, S. B. (2001, Spring). Andragogy and self-directed learning: Pillars of adult learning theory. In S. B. Merriam (Ed.), The New Update on Adult Learning Theory (vol. 89, pp. 3-13). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Wlodowski, R. J. (2004). Strategies to enhance adult motivation to learn. In M. W. Galbrieth (Ed.), Adult Learning Methods: A Guide for Effective Instruction (3 rd ed., pp. 91-112). Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing.