# Developed using the lesson study process by: Sinead Klement, Jackson Junior High Ryan Rudkin, Rolling Hills Middle School Kelli Quan and Liz Wollbrink,

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Developed using the lesson study process by: Sinead Klement, Jackson Junior High Ryan Rudkin, Rolling Hills Middle School Kelli Quan and Liz Wollbrink, Toby Johnson Middle School Sponsored by: Innovations in Science Instruction Through Modeling

Students develop, apply, revise, or extend a scientific model that helps them to explain some natural phenomenon. Model = idea or set of ideas that explain natural phenomenon Model ≠ physical object

 Observation of natural phenomenon and/ or identifying patterns in data  Developing and testing a hypothesis about possible explanations for natural phenomena  Collaborative discourse

 Students learn not only science content, but the scientific process. Mirrors what “real” scientists do.  Brings to the surface deep-rooted pre- conceptions about content.  Supported by research in how people learn.  Supports vision of the new Common Core

 Ideas already developed:  Forces general idea of a push/pull different types of forces force diagrams on stationary objects  NOTHING has been mentioned about Newton’s Laws!

 The activity:  Create an obstacle course around the classroom with cones  Have students maneuver a bowling ball around the obstacle course using a broom

 Volunteers!!! Team 10lb bowling ball Time (min) Observations 1 2 3

 How do you get the ball to speed up? What about slowing it down once it’s going?  How was making a circle or turn different?  If you don't begin slowing the ball soon enough for a turn, describe the path the ball "wants" to take.

In teams,  Discuss a possible explanation for why it is difficult to change the motion of the bowling ball (start it moving from rest, speed it up, turn it, slow it down, stop it.)When satisfied, record it on your share sheet.  Remember this is your best inference based on prior knowledge of how the world works.

 Read the model ideas from the other teams.  What are the similarities and differences among the different explanations?  Can we agree on a working model idea that adequately explains our observations from earlier?

 Ask: Does the model explain all observations? Can it be used to predict the behavior of the system if it’s manipulated in a specific way? Is it consistent with what we already know about how the world works?

 New Volunteers!!! Team 2lb bowling ball Time (min) Observations 1 2 3

 How was getting the ball to speed up different for the 2lb ball? What about slowing down?  What happens to the motion of something when you apply the same amount of force to an object with a lesser mass?  What are some real life examples you can think of where you may have seen or experienced this phenomena?

 Does our model idea from earlier explain our observations of the second bowling ball?  Do we need to add an additional inference to our model in order to better explain why it was easier to change the motion of the second bowling ball? If so, what should that statement be?

http://slapt.org/ resources/labs/ bowlingprix_ student.html

 An object changes its motion if it is acted upon by unbalanced forces.  An object with more mass requires more force to change its motion. An object with less mass requires less mass to change its motion.  If the mass does not change and the force increases, there will be a greater change in motion. If the mass does not change and the force decreases, there is a smaller change in motion.

 Force is required to keep an object in motion.  Velocity is a force.  Acceleration and velocity are always in the same direction.  Inertia is the force that keeps objects in motion.

 Highly-structured Inquiry  Make student thinking-visible/ frequent formative assessments  Choose phenomenon to observe carefully (interesting but not too complex)  Craft questions that guide student thinking beforehand (It helps to know what common misconceptions people have about the topic ahead of time.)  Be flexible! Sometimes students will need to observe a specific phenomenon to challenge an “incorrect” model idea

 We hope you have enjoyed our presentation!!  Feel free to email us with feedback and/or ideas!!  All handouts will be posted to the CSTA conference website.  Please let us know how the lessons went in your class!!

Sinead Klement, Jackson Junior High sklement@amadorcoe.k12.ca.us Ryan Rudkin, Rolling Hills Middle School rrudkin@buckeyeusd.org Sponsored by: Innovations in Science Instruction Through Modeling

 Before beginning, record a few factors that may influence a falling object’s motion.  Thought experiment: When an object is first dropped from any given height, does it initially speed up, slow down, or fall at a constant speed?

 Drop filter from a height of about 2 meters. Observe its motion until it hits the ground. Filter Description of motion during fall (use terms like “speeds up,” “slows down,” or “constant speed”) 1 2 3

 Motion Graph Sample from Motion Detector  Velocity   Time

 Draw an appropriate free-body diagram to match the filter’s motion at that point in time. Indicate if the forces are balanced or unbalanced.  What must happen for your filters to fall at a constant speed?  Filter Speeding up Constant Speed

 How come the coffee filter didn’t stop moving as the push of air on the filter became equal to the pull of the earth on the filter?

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