Monitoring the Future U.S. Department of Health 8 th 10 th 12 th Ever Used2.5%3.0%3.5% Calif. Students Estimate15,00014,182 Used past year1.4%1.7%2.1% Calif. StudentsEstimate8,5058,509 Used past month0.7%0.8%1.3% Calif. StudentsEstimate4,0025,267 Anabolic Steroid Use by Students 2003 National Survey Statistics
Monitoring the Future Male Participants 386,686 Female Participants278,284 678,970 Estimated number of CIF athletes using Steroids based upon national average of: 3.5% use 23,784 CIF Actual Participation in 2004-2005
2004 Student Survey Have you ever taken performance enhancing drugs/supplements? Yes – 11% boys Yes – 5% girls CIF Athletes 42,03213,711 CIF Athletes 42,03213,711 Do you know of someone else who takes performance-enhancing drugs/supplements? Yes – 52% boys 33% girls Survey California High School Students in March 2004, completed by @issue Consulting Group
2004 Student Survey Do you, or anyone you know take anabolic steroids? Yes – 13% boys 10% girls Are you personally aware of coaches or other sports related staff promoting the use of these substances? Yes – 18% boys7% girls 68,78019,196 68,78019,196 Survey of California High School Students in March 2004, completed by @issue Consulting Group
Kelli White Stripped of 2002 World Championships Gold Medals – use of steroids Ken Caminiti Died at age 41 Admitted to using steroids during his MVP season. Jason Giambi admits to the use of steroids
INJECTABLE ANABOLIC STEROIDS Risks include HIV Hepatitis B, C Infections Impurities
Where Do You Usually Get Your Anabolic Steroids? Friend/Family 20% Friend/Family 20% Other Physician 16% Other Physician 16% Retail Store 16% Retail Store 16% Website/Mail Order 14% Website/Mail Order 14% Coach 9% Coach 9% Teammate/Other Teammate/Other Athlete 7% Team Physician 5% Team Physician 5% Athletic Trainer 4% Athletic Trainer 4% Pro Scout/Agent 3% Pro Scout/Agent 3% Strength Coach 2% Strength Coach 2% 2001 NCAA Study of Substance Use Habits of 21,225College Student-athletes.
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Symptoms/Warnings of Steroid Use MALE Rapid muscle growth Rapid muscle growth Acne & cysts– chest, back Acne & cysts– chest, back Shrinking of the testicles Shrinking of the testicles Breast development Breast development Oily scalp Oily scalp Rage, anger, hostility and depression Rage, anger, hostility and depressionFEMALE Rapid muscle growth Rapid muscle growth Acne & cysts Acne & cysts Excessive growth of body hair Excessive growth of body hair Male pattern baldness Male pattern baldness Oily scalp Oily scalp Rage, anger, hostility and depression Rage, anger, hostility and depression
Recent Pro Wrestling Deaths associated with Steroids or hGH (human growth hormone) Davey Boy Smith, 39 Curt Henning, 44 Louie “Spiccoli” Mucciolo, 27 Richard “Ravishing Rick Rude” Rood, 40 “Flyin’” Brian Pillman, 35 Source, USA Today 3/12/04
Dietary Supplement Myths “It’s natural” “It’s natural” so they must be safe Supplements are not drugs Supplements are not drugs Supplements are Supplements are safer than safer thanpharmaceuticals xxxxxxxx
Other “Natural” Products Nicotine Nicotine THC (active ingredient in marijuana) THC (active ingredient in marijuana) Heroin Heroin Cocaine Cocaine Digoxin Digoxin Many cancer chemotherapeutic drugs Many cancer chemotherapeutic drugs
Popular “Sports” Nutritional Supplements DHEA DHEA Androstenedione Androstenediol 19-Norandrostenedione 19-Norandrostendiol 1 androstenediol (1-AD) L-Carnitine L-Carnitine HMB HMB Gamma-Hydroxy- Butyrate Gamma-Hydroxy- Butyrate Pyruvate and DHA Pyruvate and DHA Glycerol Glycerol Creatine Creatine Chromium Picolinate Chromium Picolinate Ephedra
New supplement? The Ephedra Replacement Citrus Aurantium “Bitter Orange” Zhi Shi
New Supplement: Citrus Aurantium - “Bitter Orange” Increases metabolic rate Increases caloric expenditure Fat burner Promotes weight loss Increases energy level Mild Stimulant similar to ephedrine Warning label eerily similar to ephedra
“If it takes 10 [pills] to kill you, I’ll take 9.” -Tom Simpson, Tour de France Rider Recent Cycling Drug Deaths: Marco Patani, 34 Fabrice Salanson, 23 Jose-Maria Jimenez, 32 Died: 1967 of amphetamine overdose
Example: Caffeine Ergogenic: 1000 mg to increase mobilization and strength of contractions Recreational: 100 mg in morning cup of coffee Therapeutic: 100 mg in caffeine/ergotamine to treat migraine headaches
Supplements Banned by NCAA, IOC DHEA DHEA Androstenedione Androstenedione Androstenediol Androstenediol 19- Norandrostenedione 19- Norandrostenedione Nandrolone Nandrolone 19-norandrostenediol 19-norandrostenediol metabolites metabolites Ma Huang Ma Huang Ephedrine Ephedrine Caffeine Levels > 12-15 micrograms/mL Caffeine Levels > 12-15 micrograms/mL
Anabolic Steroid Precursors Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Precursors Were Sold As Dietary Supplements President George Bush signs the “Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004” on Friday, October 22, 2004
“ Andro, which is banned in the NFL and other sports but not in baseball, was used by McGwire during the 1998 season when he hit 70 home runs, breaking the single- season record owned by Roger Maris. Andro sales quadrupled after his admission, with teenagers making up many of those consumers. ” Tom Farrey, Senators Want Over-the-Counter Andro Ban, ESPN, Oct 24, 2003 http://espn.go.com/gen/news/2003/1024/1645745.html
Androstenedione vs. Dianabol (methandrostenolone) “Androstenedione is one of the strongest, most potent legal testosterone boosters, capable of raising testosterone levels up to 600%. The results of Andro do not compare to Dianabol, but is much safer for teenagers. It is also half as cheap as Dianabol.” -Teenbodybuilding.com
Where Do Student-Athletes Get Their Dietary Supplements? Friend 14% Friend 14% Retail Store 13% Retail Store 13% Teammate/Other Athlete 12% Teammate/Other Athlete 12% Nutritionist/Dietician 12% Nutritionist/Dietician 12% Internet 11% Internet 11% Parent 9% Parent 9% Strength Coach 8% Strength Coach 8% Athletic Trainer 8% Athletic Trainer 8% Coach 7% Coach 7% Other Physician 5% Other Physician 5% Team Physician 1% Team Physician 1% -2001 NCAA Study of Substance Use Habits of College Student-athletes of 21,225 athletes.
Why Care about Athletes and Steroids and Supplements? Long Term HealthLong Term Health Integrity of the SportIntegrity of the Sport Ethical Fair PlayEthical Fair Play Inaction Alternative?Inaction Alternative?
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