Presentation on theme: "Tuesday, week 3 Zita on Scientific Revolutions.1 Arney on Effects of Science Applications to your beliefs Preview of this week."— Presentation transcript:
Tuesday, week 3 Zita on Scientific Revolutions.1 Arney on Effects of Science Applications to your beliefs Preview of this week
Paradigms are shared belief systems More than just a hunch, feeling, or bias Theory, model, laws – disciplinary matrix Community-based foundation and guidelines for puzzle-solving and knowledge creation
Normal science can improve paradigms Actualize the promise of theories (23-24) Extend knowledge of revealing facts Test a paradigm’s predictions Further articulate the paradigm itself Strive to better align theory with fact (80) Solve puzzles posed by the paradigm
Investigation can strengthen or clarify your belief Extend your knowledge of relevant facts Test your belief’s consequences or predictions Further articulate your belief itself Transform your belief to better align it with evidence Address questions related to your belief Help you present your belief more persuasively Persuade you to change your belief
Paradigm shifts Kuhn’s three main examples of scientific revolutions 1. Copernican model for the solar system (astronomy /astrophysics) You have learned quite a lot about this one already, and will learn more yet. 2. Phlogiston and oxygen (chemistry) 3. Special Relativity (physics)
Copernican Revolution Predecesor Paradigm: Anomalies with old paradigm: Crisis and proliferation of models: New technology: New facts discovered or theories invented: Resolution of crisis: new paradigm Does it matter which model is true? See Zita’s essay...
Phlogiston & Oxygen Predecesor Paradigm: Roasted objects LOSE phlogiston. Anomalies with old paradigm: Roasted objects often GAIN mass. How could phlogiston have negative mass? Crisis and proliferation of models … New technology: vacuum, mass balances, gas separation, … Resolution of crisis: new paradigm: Roasted objects GAIN oxygen (positive mass). Does it matter which model is true? New progress in chemistry …
Special Relativity Predecesor Paradigms: Newton’s absolute space & time (ether); light as a wave in the ether Anomalies with old paradigm (facts): Predicted effects of ether on light were not observed (Michelson & Morley, ) Crisis and proliferation of models (new or alternative theories): Maxwell’s brilliant synthesis dropped the ether (1873) and showed that light is electromagnetic Poincaré proposed two fundamental theorems of SR (1880s): There is no absolute reference frame The speed of light is constant in all frames Lorentz+Fitzgerald invented length contraction (1895) and time dilation to explain away M&M’s null result.
Is light a wave in the ether? (Michelson-Morley’s null result) Light is electromagnetic Maxwell 1873 Length contraction and time dilation explain away M&M’s null result? Lorentz+Fitzgerald 1895
Special Relativity … Resolution of crisis: new paradigm: Einstein combined Maxwell’s synthesis, Poincare’s theorems, Michelson+Morley’s observations, and Lorentz+Fitzgerald’s math into the Special Theory of Relativity (without crediting them…) Does it matter which model is true? Moving clocks run slow (need to correct GPS for this effect) Moving objects appear skinnier (therefore some cosmic particles survive to Earth instead of decaying in atmosphere) more… (N.B.: This model does NOT explain gravity and the precession of Mercury’s orbit – that’s General Relativity.)
Applications to your beliefs Original belief: Doubts about original belief: Alternatives: New facts from Library Research Workshop on Thursday Test belief with evidence Resolution: choose between alternative beliefs, or articulate a more credible and specific belief, based on new understanding
Questions about “facts” Are facts discovered? Are facts = truth? (ontology) Are theories invented? Do facts depend on theories? How can we know? (epistemology) Stay tuned…
Science has Effects - Arney
Sample beliefs from PA.1 (look for a teammate) Gender: Women and men are equally prepared, both physically and mentally, to serve as law enforcement agents. (Kelli) Single fathers can raise children just as well as single mothers can. (Wendy) Differences in behavior between men and women are due overwhelmingly to society and culture rather than hormones and genetics. (Jared) Politics and policies Current drug policies in America create more problems than they solve. Gay marriage solves more problems than it causes. Heavily monitoring airports for terrorist activity is ineffective. Health: Routine childhood immunizations do more harm than good in the US. (Seth) Vaccinations are preventative to your health. (Kelli) We should avoid eating certain fish because of mercury dangers. (Ian M) Science and other: Earth is experiencing a polar tilt, and this is changing weather/climate. Many Americans are constipated, and this can cause depression. Screening foster parents results in safer foster homes. (Crystal + Sarah)
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