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Introduction to Grid Computing René Kobler Institute of Graphics and Parallel Processing Johannes Kepler Univ. Linz.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Grid Computing René Kobler Institute of Graphics and Parallel Processing Johannes Kepler Univ. Linz."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Grid Computing René Kobler Institute of Graphics and Parallel Processing Johannes Kepler Univ. Linz

2 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 2 Outline  History, Motivation  Basic concepts  The EU Data Grid Project  The Austrian Grid

3 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 3 Why High Performance Computing?  Mathematical models get more and more complex  Before industry is able to construct products simulations are required  More complex models → Simulation time increases  Solution: Parallelize your problems

4 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 4 Example: Grand Challenges  Most complex computing problems nowadays (broad scientific consensus)  Examples:  n-body simulations in astrophysics  Protein folding (basics for understanding the fundamentals of life)  Meteorological simulations (weather forecast)

5 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 5 How to program a parallel system  Analyse your problem size  Distribute problem on different processes / threads  Minimize costly communication!  Techniques:  Shared memory  Message passing  “mixed-mode programming”

6 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 6 Shared Memory vs. Message Passing  Shared Memory Pro's:  Shared address space is easy to program  Message Passing programs requires often tremendous restructuring of code  Message Passing Pro's:  Efficiency! Message Passing Codes are usually much faster than equivalent shared-memory codes

7 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 7 Comparing HPC Systems   Since 1993  Update every June and November, respectively  Next List at SC Seattle, Nov. 12 – 18  Every system executes Linpack benchmark  Solving a dense system of linear equations  Important ratios:  R max = maximal Linpack performance achieved  R peak = theoretical peak performance

8 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 8 Current TOP 500 ( )  IBM manufactures 6 of the top 10 systems  Trend:  1993 → many vector- processors  Today → commodity processors (Intel, PowerPC, AMD)

9 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 9 Mare Nostrum  Fastest European Supercomputer  Housed in a majestic chapel - 2,282 IBM eServer BladeCenter JS20 blade server - housed in 163 BladeCenter chassis - 4, bit IBM Power PC 970FX processors Source: IBM

10 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 10 Problems with HPC Systems  Large-Scale HPC systems are traditionally very expensive even with the usage of commodity HW  Lower sophisticated countries do not achieve access to such systems  Solution: Bundle distributed resources for common usage!  Problem: We need higher network bandwith  Moore's Law vs. Gilder's Law

11 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 11 Moore's Law vs. Gilder's Law  Moore's Law:  Sloppy formulated: Processor power doubles every 18 months (orginally formulated in 1965, updated in 1975)  Gilder's Law:  Bandwith of communication systems triples every 12 months  We cannot focus only on processing power!  Gilder's Law even affects the internet's bandwith  Future on Distributed Computing

12 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 12 Next step: Distributed Computing  Often realized in form of cluster computing  Using the internet as communication media:  Disadvantage: lack of intransparency  Therefore: Grid Computing

13 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 13 Grid Computing: Idea  The electric power grid served as archetype for the term “grid computing”  The electric power grid is used by simply plugging in electrical devices.  The computational grid should be used by simply submitting our problem  Idea in the mid-1990s by Ian Foster (UIC) and Carl Kesselman (USC)

14 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 14 Grid concept  “Coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organisations” (Foster I., Kesselman C., Tuecke S., “The Anatomy of the Grid”, Int. Journal of Supercomputer Applications, 15(3), 2001)  Sharing → not only file exchange, but rather direct access to computers, software, data, and other resources (e.g. Sensors,...)  Sharing rules  Virtual Organization (VO) → A set of individuals and/or institutions defined by sharing rules

15 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 15 What do we need?  Protocols, services, tools to address challenges that arise when building scalable VOs.  Security solutions  Management of credentials and policies  Resource management protocols  Information query protocols  Services that provide configuration and status information about resources, organizations and services  Data management services

16 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 16 Virtual organizations vs. actual organizations Each resource owner makes resources available, subject to constraints on when, where, and what can be done

17 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 17 Constraints  Requires mechanisms for expressing policies  for establishing the identity of a consumer or resource → Authentication  for determining whether an operation is consistent with applicable sharing relationships → Authorization

18 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 18 Grid Architecture  Requires to be able to establish sharing relation- ships among any potential participants  Interoperability is thus the central issue → common protocols  Grid Architecture = protocol architecture defining basic mechanisms by which VO users and resources negotiate, establish, manage, and exploit sharing relationships

19 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 19 Grid Protocol Architecture

20 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 20 Layers of the Grid protocol architecture  Connectivity: core communication and authentication protocols required for grid-specific network transactions.  Resource: secure negotiation, initiation, monitoring, control, accounting, and payment of sharing operations on individual resources.  Collective: protocols and services of global nature to capture interactions across collections of resources.

21 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 21 Case Study: EU Data Grid Project  Exploit and build the next generation computing infrastructure providing intensive computation and analysis of shared large-scale databases  Enable data intensive sciences by providing world wide Grid test beds to large distributed scientific organizations.  Start: Jan 1 st 2001, End: Dec. 31 st 2003  Applications/Communities: HEPHY, Earth Obs., Biology

22 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 22 Specific Project Objectives  Middleware for fabric & grid management  Large scale testbed  Production quality demonstrations  Contribute to Open Standards and International Bodies (GGF, Industry & Research Forum)

23 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 23 Next Steps -> LHC Grid (starts 2007)  Data Grid was successful -> showed, that Grids can cope with large amounts of data  Next Step: Large Hadron Collider Grid  LHC: Largest scientific instrument on the planet (located at CERN) -> produces 15 TB/year  4-Tier architecture  Tier-0 is located at CERN and collects all data  Distribute after initial proc. to Tier-1 centres with large storage capabilities

24 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development ,6 km

25 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 25 The Austrian Grid  Main Target: Pioneering Grid Computing in Austria  Main Idea: Demonstration of Usefulness  Main Tasks:  Building a prototype Grid infrastructure in Austria  Improving existing Grid software by high-level extensions  Development and usage of Grid applications  Inviting potential users to use Grid technology and supporting them  Representing a contact institution for future partners

26 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 26 Middleware Extensions (1)  First figure out the requirements of the applications  Determine the extensions!  Modules closely related to applications must be implemented by application programmers  General parts must be implemented by computer scientists

27 Austrian Grid is a project funded by the bm:bwk (Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture) after recommendation by the Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. 27 Middleware Extensions (2)


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