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© Sam Ferreira. Global Patterns Unsustainable exploitation of biodiversity Rands et al. 2010. Science 329: 1298-1303 End of the line – imagine a world.

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Presentation on theme: "© Sam Ferreira. Global Patterns Unsustainable exploitation of biodiversity Rands et al. 2010. Science 329: 1298-1303 End of the line – imagine a world."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Sam Ferreira

2 Global Patterns Unsustainable exploitation of biodiversity Rands et al. 2010. Science 329: 1298-1303 End of the line – imagine a world without fish Large mammal declines in parks Craigie et al. 2010. Biological Conservation 123: 45-54 © Sam Ferreira

3 South Africa may do better sometimes 54% increasing or stable 4% decreasing Ferreira et al. 2009. SANParks, South Africa

4 The Business of Ecosystem Services Carbon sequestration Community-based ecotourism Resource use – Harvesting – Hunting – Water quality Increased monetary-based values © Rudi van Aarde

5 A conflict of interest for conservationists? Biodiversity degrades with monetary-based approaches Conundrum for protected areas Protect biodiversity But also generate revenue © Sam Ferreira Mills & Waite 2009. Ecological Economics 68: 2087-2095

6 © Rudi van Aarde

7 Why is biodiversity important? It has livelihood links – Monetary – Non-monetary Threats to biodiversity threatens livelihoods © Adrian Shrader

8 Threats are drivers of Global Environmental Change Gaston et al. 2008. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 39: 93-113 Reduction or Loss of Species in Protected Areas 22% Habitat Change Fire, prescribed burning, elephant damage, habitat loss and quality, starvation, declining resources 3% Climate Change Drought 6% Invasive species Fish stocking, bush encroachment 25% Over-Exploitation Hunting, removals for translocation 3% Pollution Affects resource availability 13% Disease 10% Predation 13% Unknown 54 % of cases involved more than one driver

9 Ocean acidification Since 1970 pH dropped by 0.1 Sea-level rise Cost 5-10% GDP Africa 75-250 million people water stress by 2020 Rural agricultural yield drop by 50% by 2020 5-8% more arid land by 2080 Climate Change as a Driver Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC): 4 th Report 2007

10 Plants on the move Moving upslope Moving downslope Number of species Altitudinal shift (m) 43% Ave. = 69m Le Roux & McGeoch 2008. Global Change Biology 14: 2950-2962 Biodiversity consequences of Climate Change

11 Invasive Species as a Driver Invasive alien plants in Kruger Foxcroft & Richardson 2003. In Plant invasives. Blackhyus Publishers. Aerial extent of Opuntia stricta Foxcroft et al. 2004. Diversity and Distribution 10: 427-437 © Sam Ferreira

12 InvadedNot invaded Richness21.39 ± 2.3135.56 ± 2.32* Abundance67.49 ± 18.8719.49 ± 18.88* Homogenization0.008 ± 0.0020.77 ± 0.002** Biodiversity consequences of Invasive Species Impact of the Argentine ant on native Fynbos ants © Melodie McGeogh McGeoch, Unpublished data

13 Over-exploitation as a Driver What does it mean? Populations harvested unsustainably - Reproduction cannot compensate for mortalities Wilcove et al. 1998. BioScience 48: 607-615 - Resource quality change Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2007 Conceptual driver Tragedy of the commons - Increase of individual resources - e.g. herd of cows - Detriment of common resources - e.g. communal fodder Hardin 1968. Science 162: 1243-1248 Frank et al. 2005. Science 308: 1621–1623

14 Dissolved inorganic nitrogen Time NO 3 - + NO 2 18/25 cases, 7** Time PO 4 3 Phosphorous 23/25 cases, 14** Fertilizer use Effluent deVilliers & Thiart 2007. South African Journal of Science 103: 343-349 State of South Africa’s River Systems Pollution as a Driver © Melodie McGeogh

15 Dead 170 Dead 28 Biodiversity consequences of Pollution Ferreira & Pienaar 2010. Aquatic Conservation Submitted © Andrew Deacon

16 Increase in EIDs Wildlife Plants & animals Homogenization Mixing Loss of diversity Increased risk of disease and disease transfer translocation impact Emerging infectious disease Transfer between domestic animals and wildlife Daszak et al. 2000. Science 287: 443-449 Human translocation of hosts and parasites Spear & Chown 2008. Journal of Biogeography No human or domestic animal involvement Matthee et al. 2004. Journal of Parasitology 90: 1263-1273 Consequences Direct threat to wildlife Indirect threat via human antagonism Disease as a Driver Belden & Harris 2007. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5: 533-539 © Danny Govender

17 Tree Grass Dynamics herbivory fire soil rainfall [CO 2 ] Bond 2008. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 39: 641-659 Management actions Climate change Habitat clearing Fragmentation Roads Habitat Change as a Driver Vehicle numbers Tourism facilities Tourist numbers © Sam Ferreira

18 Dealing with threats Climate change– land expansion Invasive species– regulatory and restoration Over-exploitation – regulatory and restoration Pollution – regulatory and restoration Disease – regulatory and scenarios Habitat change – protection and restoration Essentially a social problem growth of human populations per capita consumption Rands et al. 2010. Science 329: 1298-1303

19 Integrate conservation friendly land-uses Socio-economic-ecological complexity Conservationists are negotiators Diversify approaches MISSION To manage Golden Gate Highlands National Park in a collaborative learning environment as part of an ecologically functional and sustainable patchwork of different land uses in the region that ensures the persistence of the natural and cultural heritage for the benefit and enjoyment of all. SANParks 2009. Pretoria.

20 Scenario Planning Consequences often unknown Nearly all drivers fall in this category Disease accentuated Medical examples to embrace © Markus Hofmeyr

21 Make links and manage causal mechanisms Objectives and outcomes Drivers and indicators - impacts on biodiversity - tall trees - aesthetics - conflict Mechanisms and modulators - how they use space - water directly modulates - density may override this Management responses Induce predation Induce dispersal Mimic predation Mimic dispersal Manipulate births Manipulate deaths Restore space Manipulate resource Exclude resource Rotate resource Exclude impact Objectives Ecosystem Abiotic – soil nutrients Decomposers – millipedes Producers – vegetation Consumers – birds Species of Concern Rare species Endemic species Stakeholders Perceptions Complaints Tourists Satisfaction Revisits Drivers and indicators Elephants Patch density Fragstats Large trees Size distribution Stakeholders Wildlife conflict Damage to crops Mammals Sightings Diversity Tourist effort Mechanisms and modulators Elephants Home range overlap Season distribution Direct modulator Water availability Fence distribution Indirect modulator Abundance Density Humans Landscape use Monitoring needs Gaylard & Ferreira 2010. Koedoe. Submitted

22 Our legacy? Biodiversity begets livelihoods Livelihoods threaten biodiversity The Year of Biodiversity - A way of living – matrix of different land-uses Ferreira et al. 2010. Journal of Environmental Management Submitted – biodiversity is global public good – integrate biodiversity resource production consumption – wider institutional and societal changes – enable effective implementation Rands et al. 2010. Science 329: 1298-1303 © Sam Ferreira

23 Biodiversity should be an accidental outcome of sustainable livelihoods © Rudi van Aarde

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