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H. Fritzsch

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quantum chromo dynamics electroweak gauge theory

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Special quantum relativity mechanics

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Standard Theory particle physics

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1936 => matter atoms electrons + nuclei

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Proton Electron

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nucleus protons neutrons

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electric force strong force

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1935 Heisenberg / Pauli

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1935 strong interactions - meson exchange - Hideki Yukawa meson

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mass: 140 MeV nucleon

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1932 Heisenberg Isospin

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pions: triplet eta: singlet

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weak decay elm. decay

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LBL Berkeley Golden gate

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1953 pion nucleon

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delta quadruplet 1230 MeV

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24 1950 1 discovery of new particles in cosmic rays Hyperons K-mesons

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pair production

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6 hyperons

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8 baryons

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new mesons

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8 mesons

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strangeness conserved in processes of strong interactions

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strangeness not conserved in processes of weak interactions

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S conserved elm. process S=-2 S=-1

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8 baryons

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8 mesons => octet

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Isospin breaking about 1% _______________________________ SU(3)-symmetry breaking about 20% !

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Group theory

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U(n) group of complex unitary n x n matrices SU(n) n x n matrices det U = 1

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U = exp (iH) H: Hermitean n x n matrix

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det U = exp i (trH) SU(n): det U = 1 tr H = 0

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SU(n) (n x n-1) generators SU(2): 3 SU(3): 8 SU(4): 15 SU(5): 24

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structure constants

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quarks triplet fundamental representation

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quark triplet

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steps p / q irreducible representations

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each state is described by 3 numbers:

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1232 MeV 1530 MeV 1385 MeV Decuplet ???

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Decuplet ?

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mesons singlets, octets baryons singlets, octets, decuplets triplets? sextets?

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Three quarks for Muster Mark! Finnegans Wake, page 383

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Three quarks for Muster Mark! Drei Mark für Musterquark!

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SU(3)

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Symmetry breaking quark masses m(u)=m(d)=m(s) SU(3) unbroken

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m(u): 5 MeV m(d): 7 MeV m(s): 110 MeV SU(3) broken

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m(u): 5 MeV m(d): 7 MeV m(d) > m(u) isospin broken by quark masses m(neutron) > m(proton) !!!

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strangeness: - minus number of strange quarks !

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scaling behaviour cross section

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partons quarks

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current commutators near the light cone abstracted from free quark model explains scaling ---------behaviour---------- ---

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115 1 x x = quark-momentum / proton-momentum Expected: x => 1/3

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observed

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1974 : SPEAR Stanford

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J/ψ

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electron-positron-annihilation J/ψ: 3,1 GeV

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c: Charm - Quark

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D-mesons ( masses ~ 1870 MeV )

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D-mesons decay: weak interactions

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1977 Fermilab discovery Y „upsilon“

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upsilon meson (ϒ) 9.46 GeV ϒ=ϒ=

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discovery of t-quark

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CDF-detector

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t-quark gold atom

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t-quark decay very fast no time to form a hadron => No T-mesons No T-baryons

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