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quantum chromo dynamics electroweak gauge theory
Special quantum relativity mechanics
Standard Theory particle physics
1936 => matter atoms electrons + nuclei
nucleus protons neutrons
electric force strong force
1935 Heisenberg / Pauli
1935 strong interactions - meson exchange - Hideki Yukawa meson
mass: 140 MeV nucleon
1932 Heisenberg Isospin
pions: triplet eta: singlet
weak decay elm. decay
LBL Berkeley Golden gate
1953 pion nucleon
delta quadruplet 1230 MeV
24 1950 1 discovery of new particles in cosmic rays Hyperons K-mesons
strangeness conserved in processes of strong interactions
strangeness not conserved in processes of weak interactions
S conserved elm. process S=-2 S=-1
8 mesons => octet
Isospin breaking about 1% _______________________________ SU(3)-symmetry breaking about 20% !
U(n) group of complex unitary n x n matrices SU(n) n x n matrices det U = 1
U = exp (iH) H: Hermitean n x n matrix
det U = exp i (trH) SU(n): det U = 1 tr H = 0
SU(n) (n x n-1) generators SU(2): 3 SU(3): 8 SU(4): 15 SU(5): 24
quarks triplet fundamental representation
steps p / q irreducible representations
each state is described by 3 numbers:
1232 MeV 1530 MeV 1385 MeV Decuplet ???
mesons singlets, octets baryons singlets, octets, decuplets triplets? sextets?
Three quarks for Muster Mark! Finnegans Wake, page 383
Three quarks for Muster Mark! Drei Mark für Musterquark!
Symmetry breaking quark masses m(u)=m(d)=m(s) SU(3) unbroken
m(u): 5 MeV m(d): 7 MeV m(s): 110 MeV SU(3) broken
m(u): 5 MeV m(d): 7 MeV m(d) > m(u) isospin broken by quark masses m(neutron) > m(proton) !!!
strangeness: - minus number of strange quarks !
scaling behaviour cross section
current commutators near the light cone abstracted from free quark model explains scaling ---------behaviour---------- ---
115 1 x x = quark-momentum / proton-momentum Expected: x => 1/3
1974 : SPEAR Stanford
electron-positron-annihilation J/ψ: 3,1 GeV
c: Charm - Quark
D-mesons ( masses ~ 1870 MeV )
D-mesons decay: weak interactions
1977 Fermilab discovery Y „upsilon“
upsilon meson (ϒ) 9.46 GeV ϒ=ϒ=
discovery of t-quark
t-quark gold atom
t-quark decay very fast no time to form a hadron => No T-mesons No T-baryons
1. Internal symmetries isospin symmetry => nuclear physics SU(3) – symmetry =>hadrons chiral summetry => pions color symmetry =>quarks electroweak.
Particle Physics "three quarks for Muster Mark" -James Joyce (Finnegan’s Wake) Contents: Particle Accelerators Quantum Electrodynamics and Feynman diagrams.
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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 1 Chapter 30: Particle Physics Fundamental.
Nucleon Scattering d dd dd dd dd dd d | I,I 3 | 1, 1 | 1, 1 | 1 0 If the strong interaction is I 3 -invariant These.
Elementary Particles: Physical Principles Benjamin Schumacher Physics April 2002.
A nucleus can be specified By an atomic number and a Mass number.
Quark Soup Elementary Particles?? (circa 1960) (pions), K , , etc proton neutron c, b, Etc www-pnp.physics.ox.ac.uk/~huffman/
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Finishing things up. So what’s with that 14 C? Masses of isotopes (not “natural” stuff) truly are multiples of basic hydrogen. Hydrogen is positively.
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P Spring 2003 L5Richard Kass Isospin Isospin is a continuous symmetry that was invented by Heisenberg to explain the apparent fact that the strong.
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