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- Two Different Worlds -

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1 - Two Different Worlds -
Sparta & Athens - Two Different Worlds -

2 Sparta Sparta: Capital city of the area of Lacedaemon in Southern Peloponnese, formed by the union of 5 smaller towns & 3 tribes in one unfortified city Social groups: (Noble) Citizens, descendants of the first Dorian conquerors, who distributed the land to smaller arable areas (“κλᾶροι”) – Never working, occupied with military preparation (gymnastics, use of weapons, etc) Perioeci (Περίοικοι), small landowners living outside the main city - With no full political rights, joining the army as auxiliary soldiers Helots (Είλωτες), descendants of the older archaic population enslaved by the Dorians – Land workers with no political rights, obliged to give a big part of the harvest to the landowners & never leave their land p. 1: the area of Lacedaemon in Southern Peloponnese p. 2: ancient Sparta p. 3: gravestone from Sparta

3 Sparta Constant fear of Helots’ rebellion Need of further expansion
Limited number of Citizens (against the big number of Helots) Law mainly based on tradition & common law of the previous ages Need of being in a constant fighting trim Organized actions to limit & frighten the population of Helots p. 1: young Spartans preparing for the battle p. 2 & 4: Spartan shield & helmet

4 Sparta Administrative authorities:
Two Kings, who were members of two noble old families of Sparta & were hereditary Gerousia (= Senate/Council of the Elder), which was the council consisted of 28 leaders of the most significant families, all over 60 years old, & the 2 kings Apella (=Assembly), which was the assembly of the warriors, all over 18 years old Five Ephors, who were powerful priests-prophets till the 8th c. BC & then became the most powerful political authority of Sparta as supervisors of all aspects of Spartan life p. 1: painting representing the center of ancient Sparta p. 2: representation of Gerousia p. 3: bronze figurines of warriors

5 Sparta

6 Sparta 800 BC: Lycurgus’ reforms (which became the base of the Spartan life & political system), such as: Strict discipline of all the citizens Common education for boys & girls & training in hardship from their childhood Prohibition of using silver & golden coins – Use of only (heavy) iron ones  Limitation of trade & consumption Obligation of the younger to obey to the elder etc. p. 1: representation of a Spartan house p. 2: theoretical knowledge & music were also a part of the Spartan education p. 3: Lycurgus

7 Sparta Other characteristics of the Spartan life:
Ideals of physical & military power, discipline & respect to the elder – Team spirit & devotion to the city-state Limited development of the arts & literature (except choral lyric poetry), AS THOUGHT to be effeminate Respect to the Spartan women AS mothers of the warriors Childrens’ raising after decision of the authorities, according to their health (“Apothetes”) Strict penalties (Keadas) Strict training of the boys in groups (“ἀγέλαι”), organized by the state, after being 7 years old, in order to assimilate the Spartan ideals Choral lyric poetry: chosen by the Spartans, because it expressed a team spirit “Apothetes”: a chasm were the Spartans used to throw the handicaped babies p. 1 & 2: Keadas, a chasm where the Spartans used to throw the condemned people – human bones among the stones p. 3: bronze figurine of a young Spartan girl training, which wears a short dress in order to move more easily

8 Sparta Other characteristics of the Spartan life:
Male adolescents living in camps, eating in common meals with products from the product taxes of the land workers(“συσσίτια”) & generally leading a hard military life, IN ORDER to keep their political rights Highest honor to die for their city-state (disgrace of “ῥίψασπις”) Avoidance of travelling & offering hospitality to foreign citizens, IN ORDER to avoid temptation of luxurious life (“ξενηλασία”) Acts against the Helots, mainly after the 6th c. BC, such as “κρυπτεία” (kind of human hunting) 2nd half of the 6th c. BC: Sparta becomes the leader of the Peloponnesian League “ῥίψασπις”: the warrior who is afraid to fight & abandons his weapons in the battle-field p. 1: Spartan falanx p. 3: Leonidas

9 Athens Since 8th c. BC Union of smaller settlements (“συνοικισμός”)
Radical political change in administration: One King  Nine Rulers: leader of the group (“ἐπώνυμος ἅρχων”), king (“βασιλεύς”), leader of the army (“πολέμαρχος”) & six legislators (“νομοθέται”) & Areios Pagos ( the Nobles’ Council) 624 BC Laws of Draco (“written with blood”), such as: Enslavement of free citizens because of debts Cases of murder judged by Areios Pagos ( End of personal revenge as a punishment) p. 1: Areios Pagos p. 2: Draco

10 Athens 594 BC Laws of Solon, such as:
“σεισάχθεια” (= no one should take a mortgage loan in exchange of his freedom) Higher limit to the land ownership – Re- distribution of the spear land Insurance of every citizen’s life & dignity Political rights according to the social group & not the origin Extra taxes (“εἰσφοραί”) & indirect financial contributions (“λειτουργίαι”) for the wealthy citizens Institution of House (“Βουλή”) of Five Hundred & Heliaia (= jury with members of all the social groups) Basic administrative authority, the Assembly of Citizens (“Ecclesia”), of which all the Athenian citizens above 20 years old were members & which voted for the Nine Rulers - p. 1: Solon

11 Athens Social stratification according to the financial income, evaluated in “medimni” (80 kilos of products): Citizens with an income of 500 “medimni” , who could enter upon every public office & were officers or equestrians in the Athenian army Citizens with an income of 300 “medimni” OR equestrians , who could be members of House of 500, Heliaia & Ecclesia & were equestrians in the Athenian army Citizens with an income of 200 “medimni” OR “zeugites” , who could be members of House of 500, Heliaia & Ecclesia & were soldiers of phalanx in the Athenian army “Thetes”, who had only the right of voting in Ecclesia & were auxiliary soldiers or sailors in the Athenian army p. 1: Acropolis & Bouleuterion p. 2: Heliaia p. 3: Athenian coins p. 4: pottery scene with an equestrian

12 Athens 6th c. BC tyranny of Peisistratus 510 BC Abolition of tyranny
BC Political changes of Cleisthenes: New division of the Athenian citizens in 10 tribes with no blood relationship AS FOLLOWING: division of Athens in “city” (“ἅστυ”), “coast” (“παραλία”) & “inland” (“μεσόγειος”)  Division of each one in 10 parts (“τριττύες”)  Formation of one tribe by drawing 3 “τριττύες” Replacement of the House of 400 by the House of 500 (10*50), which was responsible for drafting the dismissals for the Ecclesia & checking the Rulers Ecclesia, responsible for foreign & interior matters Constitution of ostracism, in order to limit the power of politicians - p.: Cleisthenes

13 Athens Further characteristics:
Productive work only by the two last social groups & the metics (= foreign merchants & artisans, who lived in Athens without any political rights) Athenian women restricted in their house, almost without any part in the social life (except some religious rituals) & without any rights Wide use of domestic & public slaves, even by the less wealthy ( un- ransomed war prisoners, stolen as children from enemies, or traded in from other countries) – Sometimes freed by their masters p. 1: pottery scene with olive-collectors p. 2: Athenian coins p. 3: pottery scene with working slaves

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