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S PARTA & A THENS - Two Different Worlds -. S PARTA Sparta: Capital city of the area of Lacedaemon in Southern Peloponnese, formed by the union of 5 smaller.

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Presentation on theme: "S PARTA & A THENS - Two Different Worlds -. S PARTA Sparta: Capital city of the area of Lacedaemon in Southern Peloponnese, formed by the union of 5 smaller."— Presentation transcript:

1 S PARTA & A THENS - Two Different Worlds -

2 S PARTA Sparta: Capital city of the area of Lacedaemon in Southern Peloponnese, formed by the union of 5 smaller towns & 3 tribes in one unfortified city Social groups: o (Noble) Citizens, descendants of the first Dorian conquerors, who distributed the land to smaller arable areas ( “κλ ᾶ ροι” ) – Never working, occupied with military preparation (gymnastics, use of weapons, etc) o Perioeci (Περίοικοι ), small landowners living outside the main city - With no full political rights, joining the army as auxiliary soldiers o Helots ( Είλωτες ), descendants of the older archaic population enslaved by the Dorians – Land workers with no political rights, obliged to give a big part of the harvest to the landowners & never leave their land

3 S PARTA Constant fear of Helots’ rebellion Need of further expansion Limited number of Citizens (against the big number of Helots) Law mainly based on tradition & common law of the previous ages Need of being in a constant fighting trim Organized actions to limit & frighten the population of Helots

4 S PARTA Administrative authorities: o Two Kings, who were members of two noble old families of Sparta & were hereditary o Gerousia (= Senate/Council of the Elder), which was the council consisted of 28 leaders of the most significant families, all over 60 years old, & the 2 kings o Apella (=Assembly), which was the assembly of the warriors, all over 18 years old o Five Ephors, who were powerful priests-prophets till the 8 th c. BC & then became the most powerful political authority of Sparta as supervisors of all aspects of Spartan life

5 S PARTA

6 800 BC: Lycurgus’ reforms (which became the base of the Spartan life & political system), such as: o Strict discipline of all the citizens o Common education for boys & girls & training in hardship from their childhood o Prohibition of using silver & golden coins – Use of only (heavy) iron ones  Limitation of trade & consumption o Obligation of the younger to obey to the elderetc.

7 S PARTA Other characteristics of the Spartan life: o Ideals of physical & military power, discipline & respect to the elder – Team spirit & devotion to the city-state o Limited development of the arts & literature (except choral lyric poetry), AS THOUGHT to be effeminate o Respect to the Spartan women AS mothers of the warriors o Childrens’ raising after decision of the authorities, according to their health ( “Apothetes” ) o Strict penalties ( Keadas) o Strict training of the boys in groups (“ ἀ γέλαι ”), organized by the state, after being 7 years old, in order to assimilate the Spartan ideals

8 S PARTA Other characteristics of the Spartan life: o Male adolescents living in camps, eating in common meals with products from the product taxes of the land workers( “συσσίτια ”) & generally leading a hard military life, IN ORDER to keep their political rights o Highest honor to die for their city-state (disgrace of “ ῥ ίψασπις” ) o Avoidance of travelling & offering hospitality to foreign citizens, IN ORDER to avoid temptation of luxurious life ( “ξενηλασία” ) o Acts against the Helots, mainly after the 6 th c. BC, such as “κρυπτεία” (kind of human hunting) 2 nd half of the 6 th c. BC: Sparta becomes the leader of the Peloponnesian League

9 A THENS Since 8 th c. BC Union of smaller settlements ( “συνοικισμός” ) Radical political change in administration: One King  Nine Rulers: leader of the group ( “ ἐ πώνυμος ἅ ρχων” ), king (“βασιλεύς” ), leader of the army (“πολέμαρχος”) & six legislators (“νομοθέται”) & Areios Pagos (  the Nobles’ Council) 624 BC Laws of Draco ( “written with blood ”), such as: o Enslavement of free citizens because of debts o Cases of murder judged by Areios Pagos (  End of personal revenge as a punishment)

10 A THENS 594 BC Laws of Solon, such as: o “σεισάχθεια” (= no one should take a mortgage loan in exchange of his freedom) o Higher limit to the land ownership – Re- distribution of the spear land o Insurance of every citizen’s life & dignity o Political rights according to the social group & not the origin o Extra taxes ( “ε ἰ σφοραί” ) & indirect financial contributions ( “λειτουργίαι” ) for the wealthy citizens o Institution of House ( “Βουλή ”) of Five Hundred & Heliaia (= jury with members of all the social groups) o Basic administrative authority, the Assembly of Citizens ( “Ecclesia” ), of which all the Athenian citizens above 20 years old were members & which voted for the Nine Rulers

11 A THENS Social stratification according to the financial income, evaluated in “medimni” (80 kilos of products): o Citizens with an income of 500 “medimni”, who could enter upon every public office & were officers or equestrians in the Athenian army o Citizens with an income of 300 “medimni” OR equestrians, who could be members of House of 500, Heliaia & Ecclesia & were equestrians in the Athenian army o Citizens with an income of 200 “medimni” OR “zeugites”, who could be members of House of 500, Heliaia & Ecclesia & were soldiers of phalanx in the Athenian army o “Thetes”, who had only the right of voting in Ecclesia & were auxiliary soldiers or sailors in the Athenian army

12 A THENS 6 th c. BC tyranny of Peisistratus 510 BC Abolition of tyranny BC Political changes of Cleisthenes : o New division of the Athenian citizens in 10 tribes with no blood relationship AS FOLLOWING: division of Athens in “city” ( “ ἅ στυ” ), “coast” ( “παραλία” ) & “inland” ( “μεσόγειος” )  Division of each one in 10 parts ( “τριττύες” )  Formation of one tribe by drawing 3 “τριττύες” Replacement of the House of 400 by the House of 500 (10*50), which was responsible for drafting the dismissals for the Ecclesia & checking the Rulers Ecclesia, responsible for foreign & interior matters Constitution of ostracism, in order to limit the power of politicians

13 A THENS Further characteristics: o Productive work only by the two last social groups & the metics (= foreign merchants & artisans, who lived in Athens without any political rights) o Athenian women restricted in their house, almost without any part in the social life (except some religious rituals) & without any rights o Wide use of domestic & public slaves, even by the less wealthy (  un- ransomed war prisoners, stolen as children from enemies, or traded in from other countries) – Sometimes freed by their masters


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