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Prehistoric Cultures of the North American Continent.

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Presentation on theme: "Prehistoric Cultures of the North American Continent."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prehistoric Cultures of the North American Continent

2 The Paleo- Indians

3 The first “American” Indians The first “American” Indians – Arrived about 12,000 – 14,000 years ago. Originally nomadic Asian (mongoloid) hunters who crossed into North America via a 600 mile –wide land bridge connecting Asia with North America in the area of the Bering Straight (Beringia). Originally nomadic Asian (mongoloid) hunters who crossed into North America via a 600 mile –wide land bridge connecting Asia with North America in the area of the Bering Straight (Beringia). These hunters crossed the land bridge in pursuit of megafauna- large mammals of the era which included woolly mammoths, giant bison, mastodon, giant land sloth, and small animals such as miniature horses and camels. These hunters crossed the land bridge in pursuit of megafauna- large mammals of the era which included woolly mammoths, giant bison, mastodon, giant land sloth, and small animals such as miniature horses and camels. When the Ice Age ended, Beringia became covered with water- thus isolating the inhabitants of the Americas. When the Ice Age ended, Beringia became covered with water- thus isolating the inhabitants of the Americas. In The Beginning

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5 By 8,000 B.C. the Paleo- Indians had peopled the North and South America continents to the tip of South America. By 8,000 B.C. the Paleo- Indians had peopled the North and South America continents to the tip of South America. About 9,000 B.C. the Clovis point – a superior spear head- appeared in what is today the southwestern United States. About 9,000 B.C. the Clovis point – a superior spear head- appeared in what is today the southwestern United States. In The Beginning

6 As the climate began to change and as use of the clovis point spread, the big game and small horses died off- the largest animals left on the continents were the bear, bison, and moose. In The Beginning

7 The Archaic Period The “Cave- Dwellers” “Meso- Indian Period”

8 Considered the 2nd period of human occupation of the Americas. Considered the 2nd period of human occupation of the Americas. 8,000- 1,000 B.C. 8,000- 1,000 B.C. Archaic people typically lived in groups (bands) of people. Archaic people typically lived in groups (bands) of people. Nomadic people- hunters/ gathers- seasonal foods important- hickory nuts, acorns, persimmons, blackberries, etc – deer, raccoons, squirrels, rabbits, etc. Nomadic people- hunters/ gathers- seasonal foods important- hickory nuts, acorns, persimmons, blackberries, etc – deer, raccoons, squirrels, rabbits, etc. Many Archaic people located themselves near streams and rivers- fish, mussels, etc. (Shell mounds emerge- some over 15 ft. high.) Many Archaic people located themselves near streams and rivers- fish, mussels, etc. (Shell mounds emerge- some over 15 ft. high.) The Archaic Period

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10 The atlatl (spear thrower) was developed as to improve hunting. The atlatl (spear thrower) was developed as to improve hunting. - this improved range and velocity. - this improved range and velocity. The Archaic Period

11 New technologies emerge- grinding stone for weapons and tools. New technologies emerge- grinding stone for weapons and tools. Projectile Points become more varied and sophisticated. Projectile Points become more varied and sophisticated. Personal items such as stone pipes and cooking vessels emerge. Personal items such as stone pipes and cooking vessels emerge. Copper is first used by Native Americans during this period. Copper is first used by Native Americans during this period. The Archaic Period

12 Russell Cave in Doran’s Cove (Bridgeport) in Jackson County was used for over 10,000 years by Paleo- Indians and their descendants. Russell Cave in Doran’s Cove (Bridgeport) in Jackson County was used for over 10,000 years by Paleo- Indians and their descendants. It is believed that Native Americans were making use of this cave as early as 9,000 years ago. It is believed that Native Americans were making use of this cave as early as 9,000 years ago. The Archaic Period

13 Russell Cave is considered by most archaeologists to be the earliest known site of human occupation in the Southeastern U.S. Russell Cave is considered by most archaeologists to be the earliest known site of human occupation in the Southeastern U.S. The Archaic Period

14 The Woodland Period

15 Period of human history in the Americas between the Archaic and Mississippian Periods. Period of human history in the Americas between the Archaic and Mississippian Periods. Named for the eastern woodlands of North America. Named for the eastern woodlands of North America. 300 B.C.- 1,000 A.D. 300 B.C.- 1,000 A.D. This period is considered a developmental stage without any massive changes in a short time but instead having a continuous development in tools, textiles and leather, farming, and shelter construction. This period is considered a developmental stage without any massive changes in a short time but instead having a continuous development in tools, textiles and leather, farming, and shelter construction. Late in the period, Native Americans begin to use bows and arrows and blowguns in addition to spears and atlatls. Late in the period, Native Americans begin to use bows and arrows and blowguns in addition to spears and atlatls. The Woodland Period

16 Native Americans of this period began to construct permanent homes. Native Americans of this period began to construct permanent homes. Native American “towns” first began to appear. Native American “towns” first began to appear. Earthen mounds were first raised over graves. Earthen mounds were first raised over graves. The Woodland Period

17 Late in this period “Three Sisters” farming was introduced. Late in this period “Three Sisters” farming was introduced. The “three sisters” are corn (maize), beans, and squash. The “three sisters” are corn (maize), beans, and squash. -these crops became the staple crops for -these crops became the staple crops for Native Americans throughout the Southeast Native Americans throughout the Southeast and for other farming societies in the and for other farming societies in the Southwest and Northeast. Southwest and Northeast. -Native Americans also raised peppers, -Native Americans also raised peppers, melons, amaranth, grapes, hemp, etc. melons, amaranth, grapes, hemp, etc. The Woodland Period

18 The Mississippian Period The “Mound Builders”

19 Appeared 700 to 900 A.D. Appeared 700 to 900 A.D. Peaked around 1300 A.D. Peaked around 1300 A.D. Named for the Mississippi River as Native Americans of this period often located their towns near rivers- the Mississippi, Tennessee, Cumberland, and Warrior, and many others. Named for the Mississippi River as Native Americans of this period often located their towns near rivers- the Mississippi, Tennessee, Cumberland, and Warrior, and many others. The Native Americans of this period are known for the huge earthen mounds which they build as foundations for temples, homes for leaders, religious ceremony, burials, etc. The Native Americans of this period are known for the huge earthen mounds which they build as foundations for temples, homes for leaders, religious ceremony, burials, etc. There are many examples of these mounds throughout the Southeast including many in Alabama. There are many examples of these mounds throughout the Southeast including many in Alabama. The Mississippian Period

20 Etowah Mounds- near Calhoun, Georgia Etowah Mounds- near Calhoun, Georgia The Mississippian Period

21 Mounds at Moundville, Alabama Mounds at Moundville, Alabama The Mississippian Period

22 At its height, the town at Moundville was home to over 3,000 people- making it the second largest Indian town north of present- day Mexico. At its height, the town at Moundville was home to over 3,000 people- making it the second largest Indian town north of present- day Mexico. The Mississippian Period

23 Ancient Civilizations of the American Southwest The Intrigue and Impressive Experience of the Anasazi, Hohokam, Mogollon, Patayan, Salado,and Sinagua Cultures

24 What did the prehistoric peoples of the American Southwest experience in their various environments? Diverse habitats Diverse habitats Changing environmental aspects Changing environmental aspects Various human adaptations to the land Various human adaptations to the land Depletion of some resources Depletion of some resources Cultural contacts Cultural contacts

25 Diverse habitats Arizona, and the American Southwest as a whole, is such a remarkable area with so many different geographic locations. Arizona, and the American Southwest as a whole, is such a remarkable area with so many different geographic locations. Because the people of the region were no longer nomadic, they needed to make the best use of resources within their immediate region. Because the people of the region were no longer nomadic, they needed to make the best use of resources within their immediate region. The market place of variation… The market place of variation…

26 Changing environmental aspects Over time all things change, including the natural world around us. Over time all things change, including the natural world around us. The Southwest had been a region of somewhat greater moisture than we know today. The Southwest had been a region of somewhat greater moisture than we know today. The cultures needed to adapt to climates altering over the decades. How did they do this? The cultures needed to adapt to climates altering over the decades. How did they do this?

27 A nomadic lifestyle transitions to a sedentary way of life. A nomadic lifestyle transitions to a sedentary way of life. An agricultural economy gradually moves northward. An agricultural economy gradually moves northward. Topography and temperature determines the economy to a great extent. Topography and temperature determines the economy to a great extent. A sedentary style leads to greater artistic expression. How did art impact their personal and environmental nature? A sedentary style leads to greater artistic expression. How did art impact their personal and environmental nature? Various human adaptations to the land

28 Depletion of some resources The hunter-gatherer lifeway has an impact on the megafauna of the region. The hunter-gatherer lifeway has an impact on the megafauna of the region. Changing climate brings about a transition (and chain reaction) in the plant life which then affects the animal life, which then… Changing climate brings about a transition (and chain reaction) in the plant life which then affects the animal life, which then… How aware were the sedentary cultures to changes taking place around them? How aware were the sedentary cultures to changes taking place around them?

29 Cultural contacts When different groups come in contact with one another, everyone is affected. When different groups come in contact with one another, everyone is affected. Migration of some people would bring about an awareness of various outlooks. Migration of some people would bring about an awareness of various outlooks. Cultural contacts should not necessarily infer violent confrontation. Cultural contacts should not necessarily infer violent confrontation. Which present day Native American cultural groups claim a connection to ancestral peoples that occupied the Southwest? Which present day Native American cultural groups claim a connection to ancestral peoples that occupied the Southwest?

30 Who were the Anasazi? Also known as the Hisatsinom Also known as the Hisatsinom Lived in the 4 Corners region of the Southwest Lived in the 4 Corners region of the Southwest Renowned for their architecture above all other characteristics Renowned for their architecture above all other characteristics

31 The Anasazi ( or Hisatsitom) A somewhat cooler climate brings about a different pattern of life. A somewhat cooler climate brings about a different pattern of life. Landscape affects the residence of a people. Landscape affects the residence of a people. Besides the style of architecture there were many other aspects to their existence. Besides the style of architecture there were many other aspects to their existence.

32 Legacy of the Anasazi/Hisatsinom Although there was a long presence of the culture in the region, the highpoint of the Anasazi/Hisatsinom lasted for less than 100 years. Although there was a long presence of the culture in the region, the highpoint of the Anasazi/Hisatsinom lasted for less than 100 years. Early origins of the Hopi and Pueblo cultural groups Early origins of the Hopi and Pueblo cultural groups

33 Who were the Hohokam? How does their name represent something about the essence of their legacy? How does their name represent something about the essence of their legacy? The ancient peoples of our own specific portion of the Southwest The ancient peoples of our own specific portion of the Southwest Intensive agriculturalists Intensive agriculturalists

34 The Hohokam As with the other major cultural groups in the Southwest, an outgrowth of the Desert Culture (made the most of their situation) As with the other major cultural groups in the Southwest, an outgrowth of the Desert Culture (made the most of their situation) First culture in the region to practice the large scale agriculture tradition with beans, corn, & squash First culture in the region to practice the large scale agriculture tradition with beans, corn, & squash Irrigation canals  Phoenix? Irrigation canals  Phoenix?

35 Legacy of the Hohokam Responded in an impressive way to Mesoamerican influences Responded in an impressive way to Mesoamerican influences Wide ranging influence beyond their primary range Wide ranging influence beyond their primary range Early origins of the Pima and Tohono O’odham cultural groups Early origins of the Pima and Tohono O’odham cultural groups

36 Who were the Mogollon? This group is renowned for the unique artistic style of their pottery. This group is renowned for the unique artistic style of their pottery.

37 The Mogollon Although, of course, there was development of the culture over time, it was not as sophisticated as neighboring cultures. Although, of course, there was development of the culture over time, it was not as sophisticated as neighboring cultures. In the Mogollon cultural region, inhabitants occupied some of the most geologically and ecologically diverse landscape in the United States. In the Mogollon cultural region, inhabitants occupied some of the most geologically and ecologically diverse landscape in the United States.

38 Legacy of the Mogollon The classic late period of the Mogollon culture is known as Mimbres. Profound changes occurred for the Mogollon during this last of five phases. Why might this have happened? The classic late period of the Mogollon culture is known as Mimbres. Profound changes occurred for the Mogollon during this last of five phases. Why might this have happened? The descendants of the Mogollon are thought to be the Zuni and Acoma cultures. The descendants of the Mogollon are thought to be the Zuni and Acoma cultures.

39 Who were the Patayan, Salado and Sinagua? These were three cultural groups that, while not as large as the groups previously mentioned, had an overlapping influence within the region of what we know as Arizona today. These were three cultural groups that, while not as large as the groups previously mentioned, had an overlapping influence within the region of what we know as Arizona today. What is impressive is the issue of cultural contact as demonstrated by each of these groups with other entities. What is impressive is the issue of cultural contact as demonstrated by each of these groups with other entities.

40 The Range of the Patayan, Salado, and Sinagua Cultures

41 Artifacts of the Patayan, Salado, and Sinagua Cultures

42 The Significance of Paleo Indians in the Southwest A vivid reminder that we were not here first! A vivid reminder that we were not here first! The dynamics and diversity of these earlier civilizations set the stage for later cultures. The dynamics and diversity of these earlier civilizations set the stage for later cultures. What lessons can we learn from the experiences passed down through the ages? What lessons can we learn from the experiences passed down through the ages?

43 Native American History Rocks! What impression can we hope to leave on the landscape and legacy of our days shared in this precious country? What impression can we hope to leave on the landscape and legacy of our days shared in this precious country?

44 QUESTIONS???


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