Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Ethical Challenges Associated with Denial & Deception (D&D) in Social Network Sites Dr. Edna Reid, Student, National Intelligence University (NIU)

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Ethical Challenges Associated with Denial & Deception (D&D) in Social Network Sites Dr. Edna Reid, Student, National Intelligence University (NIU)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ethical Challenges Associated with Denial & Deception (D&D) in Social Network Sites Dr. Edna Reid, Student, National Intelligence University (NIU) The views expressed in this presentation are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government 1

2 Denial & Deception (D&D) Have you received a spear-phishing from LinkedIn social networking site? 2

3 Overview Denial and Deception (D&D) in SNS Emerging Trends: Crowdsourcing and Gamification Case Study: AQAP Inspire Online Magazine Ethical Challenges in D&D in SNS Distortion of Online Identities (e.g., phishing) Misrepresentative of Motives Web Privacy (e.g., Do not track) Gamification 3

4 Example of Crowdsourcing & Gamification Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Shredder Challenge 4

5 Badges for Foursquare 5

6 Trends in D&D in Social Networking Sites 6 Cybercrime (masking) Exploiting SNS for phishing, identity theft, kidnapping & burglaries (Digital Criminal Report 2010). Bebo. Facebook Google Earth MySpace Street View, Twitter National Security Robin Sage Experiment used SNS to create a fake persona to test operation security (OPSEC) Facebook LinkedIn Lexis/Nexis TerrorismUsing SNS to spread deceptive narratives, recruit, & train extremists such as providing links to Inspire (AQAP online magazine) Blogs Facebook Web forums Youtube Note: All of these can be used for intelligence gathering (especially when there is info leakage)

7 Typology of SNS and Deception Real Digital Identity Virtual Digital Identity Person Is Being (age, sex) Be Hidden Issue - visibility Person Is Doing Any Show, Any ShowHide, Show Show Hidden Ex: Match.comEx: LinkedIn Ex: Second LifeEx: Shamukh al-Islam Screen Lighthouse Magic Lantern 7

8 Typology of SNS and Deception Real Digital Identity Virtual Digital Identity Person Is Being (age, sex) Hide, Show Show HiddenBe Hidden Any Show, Any Show Issue - visibility Screen Match Meetic eHarmany Ulteem Cyworld Rezog LiveJournal Ansar al-mujahideen Forum Chiaroscuro Delicious Friendster FlickrGoogle+ Second Life Subeta (care pet) Farmville You Tube Dodgeball LinkedIn Twitter Chatter (business) Shamukh al-Islam Texas Holden Poker Pinsterest (images) Bebo Motionbox (videos) World of Warcrafts Magic Lantern Lighthouse Post-It Hi5 Facebook Orkut Yoville Mafi Wars Flixster (movies) Imeems (music) Person Is Doing Yandex (Russia) Yamme r (business) 8

9 Gamification (Meaningful Play) Sebastian Deterding – expert in persuasive design 9

10 Summary of Issues of Inspire FeaturesIssue #1 Jun 2010Issue #2 Sept 2010Issue #3 Nov 2010 ThemesMay Our Souls Be Sacrified for You by AA The Operations of Abyan in Images $4,200 AQAP Cost for Operation Hemorrhage Ideologue: Anwar al-Aulaqi (AA) May Our Souls Be Sacrified for You by AA The New Mardin Declaration by AA None mentioned StrategiesJihadi Experience: Schools of jihad (Abu Musab al-Suri, author of The Global Islamic Resistance) Jihadi Experience: Front Operation (Abu Musab al-Suri) Multi-phase operation, Cause hemorrhage in aviation system TargetsMolly Norris (draw Mohammad contest) Cities,Towns, Targets within Your Own Country UPS, Fedex Cargo Planes, Synagogues Training (Open Source Jihad) How to Make Bomb in Kitchen of Your Mom. Encrypt Messages Ultimate Mowing Machine Random Shootings, Car, 4WD Suicide AA = Anwar al=Aulaqi

11 Umbrella of Crowdsourcing Techniques in Inspire Macrotasks Craft messages, broadcast the problem to crowd, & ask them to get involved Crowdsourcing is taking a task that is normally performed by a group and outsourcing it by making an open call to large groups of people (Jeff Howe, Microtasks Divide problem into small tasks. Allow participants to decide courses of action Crowddonation Ask crowd to donate skills, time, & ultimately their lives for the specified cause Gamification Support usage of game dynamics so participants can increase competition, acquire addictive behavior, &seek recognition Adapted from daily.crowdsourcing.com 11

12 Macrotasks Crowdsourcing Technique in Inspire AQAP’s Perception of Targets in the Crowd Targets’ Perception of AQAP Social Media Savvy 72 Virgins for Martyrs In Jerusalem We Meet U.S/West/Crusaders Occupy Muslim Lands 1. Craft Messages Six Open 2. Broadcast Six Open Call s to Believers (Inspire, 1 st Issue, p.54) 1 st : 1 st : O U who believe when U meet disbelievers in battle do not turn your back (Quran 8:15) 2 nd : 2 nd : O U who believe do not turn from Him when U hear His order (Quran 8:20) 3 rd : 3 rd : O U who believe respond when He call U to that which (Quran 8:24) 4th: 4th: O U who believe do not betray (Quran 8:27) 5th : 5th : O U who believe if U fear Allah He will.. remove you from (Quran 8:29) 6th: 6th: O U who believe when U encounter enemy stand firm (Quran 8:45) Cool Jihad Cool Jihad Tech Savvy Young Muslims Gamers 3. Ask Specific Targets to Get Involved Multi-Taskers Multi-Taskers Socially Conscious Avid Learners Manhattan Raid/9-11 Lone Wolf Muslim Rage Rage U.S. Foreign Policy U.S. Foreign Policy Martyr Martyr 12

13 Gamification of Inspire Challenges Ultimate Status (Martyr/Shahid) Status & Recognition (such as Umar Farouq cited for operation that should be emulated) WinCompetition Gamification is the use of gaming techniques to increase competitiveness and motivate users to perform tasks (Brachman & Levine, 2011) Social Engagement AQ Ideology 13

14 Status and Recognition in Inspire Novice Expert Master HEROIC MARTYRDOM BROTHER Lifecycle Stages Needs Mentoring + Training (i.e., feedback, response, shout-out) Needs Implement Operation + Tools + Training (i.e., rifle, explosives) Seized Opportunity + Tools + Status ( i.e., knife, explosive) High Recognition Martyr Sample of Winners Usama bin Ladin (2011) Anwar al-Aulaqi (2011) Samir Khan (2011) Taimour Abdulwahhab (2011) (Sweden) Umar al-Faruq (Xmas bomber, 2009) Nidal Hasan (Ft. Hood, 2009) Faisal Shahzad Faisal Shahzad (Times Square, 2010) Roshanara Chaundry Roshanara Chaundry (UK, 2011) 14

15 Ethical Challenges in D&D in SNS Distortion of Online Identities (e.g., phishing) Misrepresentative of Motives Web Privacy (e.g., Do not track) Gamification Corporate Manipulation Lost of Control of Decisionmaking Obsessive Behavior 15

16 Bibliography Ethics of Gamification, Practical Ethics, University of Oxford, rewards-for-everything/ rewards-for-everything/ Jane McGonigal, Digital Ethics and Gamification, by Evan, Nov Bell and Whaley’s Typology of D&D, Texttbook of Political-Military Counterdeception, National Intelligence Council, Aug 2007 (p.125) 16


Download ppt "Ethical Challenges Associated with Denial & Deception (D&D) in Social Network Sites Dr. Edna Reid, Student, National Intelligence University (NIU)"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google