Presentation on theme: "to Promote Dark Skies Awareness:"— Presentation transcript:
1to Promote Dark Skies Awareness: For Local Leaders of Dark Sky Advocacy…Outreach You Can Doto Promote Dark Skies Awareness:GLOBE at NightConnie Walker(National Optical Astronomy Observatory)and the "GaN" TeamJanuary 20, 2011NSN2011 Telecon1
2National Optical Astronomy Observatory Cerro Tololo Inter- American ObservatoryKitt Peak National ObservatoryThis composite image on the right, taken at Kitt Peak National Observatory, outlines the Kepler satellite field of view, and within it, a circle marks the location of the faintest Kepler Mission host star yet, a G8 dwarf star harboring a 1.12 Jupiter-size exoplanet in a 3.9 day orbit. (reported by Howell et al in the Astrophysical Journal, accepted for publication in October, 2010) Ground-based confirmation of this planet involved three different telescopes on Kitt Peak: the 2.1-meter, the 4-meter and the WIYN telescope.About the picture: The sky was photographed using a diffraction grating (Glaspey): spectra are visible on either side of the bright stars, the telescopes were imaged separately (Marenfeld) and later combined with the sky image. The sky image was taken with a Canon Digital Rebel using an 18 mm lens with a diffraction grating filter to create the spectra. The exposure was 122 sec at f/4.0 using ISO 1600.Minimum credit line: J. Glaspey, P. Marenfeld & NOAO/AURA/NSF
3A global problem that people can help solve locally… Light pollution is artificial night sky brightness, directed up toward the sky and wasted. The International Dark-Sky Association estimates that one-third of outdoor lighting escapes unused into space, causing light pollution. Under an unpolluted sky we ought to see 5000 stars, yet we see only a couple hundred from most suburban areas. Two thirds of all US citizens cannot see the Milky Way galaxy from where they live.2008 marked the first year half of the world’s population lived in cities.As you can see in this nighttime image of the world, cities are traced by the light pollution they produce.Here you can imagine the world as ever-growing urban constellations, diminishing our ability to see the stellar constellations.Is this the heritage we want to leave our children?The good news is that although light pollution is a global issue, it has local solutions.The first step is to make people more aware of this global issue and that they can be part of the local solutions.This is where you as amateur astronomers come in and can help significantly by providing outreach to the public, especially w/all of the outreach you do and all of the knowledge and skills you possess.
4How to bring awareness and a desire to slow down the increase in light pollution?(Cinzano, Falchi, and Elvidge 2001)
5Questions to ConsiderHow do you explain to city dwellers the importance of what they’ve lost to artificial sky glow?How can you make them aware that light pollution is a concern on many fronts: safety, energy conservation, cost, health and effects on wildlife, as well as our ability to view the stars?How do you convince them that it’s worthwhile to take steps, even small ones, to help redress this issue?
6Light Pollution Education at NOAO Students in Grades K-12, Teachers, General PublicBoth formal and informal settingsGLOBE at Night CampaignDark Skies Rangers activities
7GLOBE at Night www.globeatnight.org Citizen-scientists record the brightness of the night sky by matching its appearance toward the constellation Orion with star maps of progressively fainter stars.GLOBE at Night was also one of the flagship programs for the Dark Skies Awareness Cornerstone Project for the International Year of Astronomy.Measurements are submitted on-line and resulting maps of all worldwide observations are created.Over the last 5 annual two-week GLOBE at Night campaigns, 52,000 measurements have been contributed from over 100 countries.
8GLOBE at Night Website www.globeatnight.org 5 step citizen science program – simple to participateBackground information on key conceptsInteractive gamesFun quizzes to check proficiencyTeacher and Family Guides in 14 different languagesPostcards, flyers en español también!Report pageMap page with data in various formats
9Match Night Sky to a Magnitude Chart. Estimate cloud coverage.Fill out the observation sheet.
10A more technically accurate approach: using Sky Quality Meters Press start button here:Light enters here:Read-out numbers here:
11Simple Report Form Tablet/Pad Cell Phone Desktop/ Laptop Date and TimeTablet/PadCellPhoneLocationOrion dataDesktop/LaptopCloudinessand SQM data
12Measurements are downloadable as datasets in various formats can be examined online via Google Earth or other toolsused as the basis of research in a class- room or science fair project or even to inform the development of public policy
15Dark Skies Education Kits (600 kits distributed) Materials for a light shielding demonstrationDark Skies Ranger activitiesDark Skies Education & GLOBE at Night resources on CD and 2 DVDsAdvertising materials (postcards, poster, flyers, etc)Children’s Book: “There Once was a Sky Full of Stars”Quiet Skies Activity (AM radio & fan)Sky Quality Meter (optional)
17Types of Lamps High Intensity Discharge Incandescent Fluorescent Light Emitting Diode (LED)High Intensity DischargeLEDFluorescent“Lamp” is a lighting industry term for an electric light bulb, tube, or other lighting device.INCANDESCENTMost common in homesIt uses electric current to heat a tiny coil of tungsten metal inside a glass bulb to produce light.Have short livesConvert most of their energy into heat rather than lightFLUORESCENTA fluorescent lamp contains mercury that is ionized by an electric arc, producing ultraviolet energy which, in turn, causes a phosphor coating inside the lamp to fluoresce.Fluorescent lighting needs to be disposed of properly when it is not longer in use. Most cities have a recycling program where people can safely dispose of the burned out bulbs.Used mostly in commercial settings3 to 4 times more efficient than incandescent, and lasts 10 times longerProduces up to 100 lumens per watt (approximately)LED technology is still relatively new and has not been installed on a wide basis yet.HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE LIGHTSA high intensity discharge lamp (HID): produces light directly from an arc discharge under high pressure.This include: Metal halide, high pressure sodium and mercury vapor are types of HID lamps.Used mainly for large area applicationsProvide higher efficacy and longer service lifeMost common types are mercury vapor (MV), metal halide (MH), and high- pressure sodium (HPS)Metal Halide: 100/lumens per wattHPS: up to 150/lumens per wattMV: being phased outLPS = low pressure sodium lightsAlso considered a high intensity discharge lamp, but it has some unique characteristics.Used in outdoor applicationsMost efficient form of artificial lighting according to IDAMaintain its light output better than other lampsOlder technology, not many manufacturers producing new productProduces up to 200/lumens per wattLumens is the overall output of the luminaire.Lumens is a measure of the power of light as perceived by the human eye.It reflects the varying sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths of light.Luminous efficacy of radiation measures the fraction of electromagnetic power which is useful for lighting.Efficacy is lumens per wattIncandescentHigh Intensity DischargeCompact Fluorescent Lamp
18Unshielded and Shielded Lighting These two ball fields show a good contrast between unshielded and shielded lighting. The field on the left is producing glare and so much of its light is wasted going into the sky. The field on the right has much less impact on the surrounding area because it is only lighting the field, not the neighborhood. Which one would you rather live next to?
19The Difference Retrofitting Luminaires Can Make The community of Monte Patria, Chile
20Lighting Responsibly Shine the light down. See the effect, not the source.Light only where and when needed.Don’t over light.Use energy efficient sources.
213 Main Types ofLight PollutionLight TrespassGlareSky Glow
23Data Analysis Comparison of data over time (changes, trends) Comparison to data on population densitySearch for dark sky oasesMonitor ordinance complianceEffects of light pollution on animals or plantsEffects on human healthEffects on safety, security, energy consumption, costTucson, Arizona, USA
24Students Ask: How Much of the Night Sky Have We Already Lost? 5 kmNorthPenn-Harris-Madison School Corporation (District) near South Bend, IN.
25City Lighting Inventory by High Schoolers & Amateur Astronomers The community of Norman, Oklahoma1 km
26GLOBE at Night Data 2006-2010 2500 Orion data points plus 500 SQM data pointsforTucson, AZ
30Looking Toward the Future by Building... An on-line community with Facebook and Twitter – done!On-line tutorials of the Dark Skies Rangers activities – half way done!A web application to submit GLOBE at Night data using mobile devices – help us test the app!More monthly campaigns – on their way!A user-friendly analysis tool on the GLOBE at Night website (WWT & WGBH) – a bright future!
31GLOBE at Night Needs You... MagTo take GLOBE at Night data during both campaigns.To teach and encourage children and adults to take GLOBE at Night measurements.To become a local coordinator that would work with people at a starparty, or in a classroom or 2 or 3... or with visitors at a local park on their participation in the GLOBE at Night campaign.To do the Dark Skies Rangers activities with students to teach them about light pollution issues and lighting responsibly.To use the GLOBE at Night data with other data sets.To work with the IDA in preserving dark skies.To do it all.
32GLOBE at Night Campaign 2011 February 21 to March 6 for both Northern and Southern HemispheresUses Orion.March 22 to April 4 for Northern HemisphereUses Leo.March 24 to April 6 for Southern HemisphereUses Leo or Crux.
33Further Information Websites of interest: gers/twitter.com/GLOBEatNightCan go to the web app webpage or you can get there directly with the QR bar code.To read the bar code, there are some Free apps for:iPhone: RedLaserAndroid: Barcode ScannerBlackberry: QR Code Scanner ProiPhone, Android or Blackberry?Scan the QR Code above to go directly to the beta version of the GLOBE at Night data submission web app.Contact: Connie WalkerGLOBE at Night Directoror
34Sponsoring Institutions GLOBE at Night (www.globeatnight.org) has been a collaboration betweenthe National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) in Tucson, AZ;The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Program, in Boulder, CO;the Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) in Redlands, CA;the International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) in Tucson, AZ; andthe Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS) in Altovalsol, Chile.Other partners include the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the American Astronomical Society, the Astronomical League, Astronomers Without Borders, The World At Night, and Let There Be Night,org.