Presentation on theme: "The Explorers Spanish and Portuguese. Today we will… Explore the reasons why people went off to explore. Describe the new technology which made exploration."— Presentation transcript:
Why Go Explore? European Curiosity About the Far East –Marco Polo (13 th Century visit to Cathay (China)) –Europeans desired silks and spices of the East and wanted to eliminate the Moslem middlemen. –Renaissance Spirit of Inquiry
Why Go Explore? Wealth and Ambitions of the New National States –By the 16 th century, many European states had the wealth to sponsor such voyages. –The rising middle class desired trade. –The absolute monarchs sought colonial empires and were willing to risk it all for the hope of great profits.
Scientific Progress – New Technology Ships – Caravels –These ships had both Triangular Sails and Square sails. –Also, a moveable rudder. Better Cartography –Better maps make exploration easier Mariners Compass –Helping determine direction is an essential part of navigation Astrolabe –An instrument for determining latitudes
Prince Henry the Navigator - Portugal In the mid 1400’s, Prince Henry Sponsored voyages to the NW coast of Africa. One of Henry’s navigators discovered the Azores Islands. He is one of the first to use the new type of ships called the Caravel.
Bartolomeu Dias In 1487, he made it to the tip of Africa and started to go towards India. Severe storms hit his expedition and he named this cape – The Cape of Bad Storms. Upon learning about this, the Portuguese King renamed this – The Cape of Good Hope. Why? It gives us hope that someone, someday will make it around Africa and sail to India.
Vasco da Gama He was the first explorer to successfully sail around Africa to India in 1498. He was given the title – Admiral of the Indian Ocean. He brought wool sweaters, tin trinkets and glass beads to trade with. He attained a reputation as a “fixer.” He died of malaria on Christmas eve in 1524.
Christopher Columbus - Spain Columbus set sail in 1492 to try and find a western route to the Indies. He made four voyages to the New World. He mistakenly labeled the native inhabitants – Indians. Was Columbus Greedy or Nice? Why do we celebrate Columbus day? Did he discover the New World?
Vasco nunes de Balboa He discovered the South Seas (Pacific Ocean) in 1513. Upon his travels, he met up with Francisco Pizarro in 1518 in Panama. Both men were searching for gold and someone told them of a city where the streets were “paved in Gold.” Upon hearing this, Pizarro arrested Balboa and tried him for treason. Balboa was found guilty and was beheaded by an axe. It took four tries to behead him.
Ferdinand Magellan Magellan was a Portuguese sailor who fell out of favor with the King of Portugal. He worked with a mathematician and determined the world was round. His goal was to get to the Spice Islands. Of the 270 crew members who set out with Magellan to circumnavigate the globe, only 18 managed to return to Spain and thereby complete the circumnavigation. Magellan died in the Philippines.
When morning came, forty-nine of us leaped into the water up to our thighs, and walked through water for more than two cross-bow flights before we could reach the shore. The boats could not approach nearer because of certain rocks in the water. The other eleven men remained behind to guard the boats. When we reached land, [the natives] had formed in three divisions to the number of more than one thousand five hundred people. When they saw us, they charged down upon us with exceeding loud cries... The musketeers and crossbow-men shot from a distance for about a half-hour, but uselessly... Recognizing the captain, so many turned upon him that they knocked his helmet off his head twice... A native hurled a bamboo spear into the captain's face, but the latter immediately killed him with his lance, which he left in the native's body. Then, trying to lay hand on sword, he could draw it out but halfway, because he had been wounded in the arm with a bamboo spear. When the natives saw that, they all hurled themselves upon him. One of them wounded him on the left leg with a large cutlass, which resembles a scimitar, only being larger. That caused the captain to fall face downward, when immediately they rushed upon him with iron and bamboo spears and with their cutlasses, until they killed our mirror, our light, our comfort, and our true guide. When they wounded him, he turned back many times to see whether we were all in the boats. Thereupon, beholding him dead, we, wounded, retreated, as best we could, to the boats, which were already pulling off. Antonio Pigafetta, a Wealthy Businessman who observed his death An Account of Magellan’s Death
Amerigo Vespucci An Italian sailor who made many claims that he sailed to the New World. A German map maker was looking to name the New World and called it “America” after him. Some debate if he ever really traveled to the New World.