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Refraction How to Find Images Using Ray Diagrams Bending of light due to a change in speed (changes mediums) Objects behind or in more optically dense materials refract, causing distortion in an image.

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Refraction Ray Diagrams Index of refraction (n) changes r n – can be thought of as optical density The bigger n r is the smaller r becomes

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Applications - Spear Fishing Light reflecting off fish bends before entering the eye. Makes spear fishing hard. Must aim at where fish is not at.

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The “Broken?” Pencil Light rays bend as they leave water. Travel to eye. Follow bent rays back to see where object appears to be.

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Internal Reflection What happens when you vary the incident angle ( i ) from a more optically dense material?

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Fiber Optics Fiber optics makes use of internal reflection. Light travels long distances at very high speeds. Digital information.

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Refraction by a Converging Lens Light bends (refracts) as it enters more optically dense material. Light refracts again when it exits lens.

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Refraction by a Diverging Lens The same applies for a diverging lens. Refracted rays don’t converge Follow back diverging rays to find focal point.

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Thin Lens Approximation Hard to draw all refractions inside lens. Approximate using vertical bisecting line. Parallel to principal axis, through focal point. This time the rays go through instead of reflecting. The rays converge at the image location.

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Placing objects at different locations produces images of varying sizes and locations. Finding Image Locations

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Diverging Lens

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All visible objects emit or reflect light rays in all directions.

All visible objects emit or reflect light rays in all directions.

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