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© Boardworks Ltd 20061 of 31 Prevention of Injury © Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 31 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. KS4 Physical Education
© Boardworks Ltd 20062 of 31 Learning objectives What we will learn in this presentation: Learning objectives What factors cause injuries Safety precautions which prevent injuries The importance of choosing correct clothing, footwear and equipment for different sports How body conditioning helps to prepare the body for activity Why and how we should warm-up and cool-down The need for balancing competition according to grading, skill levels, weight, age and gender The importance of rules and laws in sport and the role of officials in preventing injuries. © Boardworks Ltd 2006 2 of 31
© Boardworks Ltd 20063 of 31 What causes injury? Injury can be caused by internal or external factors: Internal factors These are factors to do with the performer themselves, for example lack of proper conditioning, poor technique or failure to complete an effective warm-up or cool-down. These are factors from outside that affect a performer on the day, for example the condition of the playing area, the equipment used and the actions of competitors. External factors How can risks from these factors be minimized?
© Boardworks Ltd 20064 of 31 What causes injury?
© Boardworks Ltd 20065 of 31 What happens in your PE lessons? Think about the safety precautions that are taken in your PE lessons. These may include: Athletics? Football? Netball? Rugby? Cricket? Tennis? Which of these procedures are followed before every lesson? Which additional procedures are followed before: Kit checks Use of safety equipment like crash mats A warm-up and cool-down Pitch inspection Instructions about technique and safety
© Boardworks Ltd 20066 of 31 Before the game Many precautions must be taken before participation. Make a list of everything you can think of that can be done before sport to prevent injury, then look at the selection below. Describe the importance of each item. Warm-up Correct technique TrainingFitness, strength and flexibility KitCorrect clothing Appropriate equipment in good condition Inspection of playing conditions Pre-event precautions
© Boardworks Ltd 20067 of 31 Correct clothing – what not to wear
© Boardworks Ltd 20068 of 31 Correct clothing – what you should wear What should you wear? Protective gear appropriate to the activity should be worn. Some dangerous sports require protective equipment like body armour, gum shields or helmets. Warm clothing should be worn before competing. During the activity you need clothing that will keep you the correct temperature. Generally speaking, you should wear comfortable clothing that allows a full range of movement.
© Boardworks Ltd 20069 of 31 Correct clothing
© Boardworks Ltd 200610 of 31 Correct equipment The equipment you play with needs to be in good condition, up-to-date and used correctly. What are the possible issues around using the items shown opposite? Javelin 5-a-side goal Gym mats
© Boardworks Ltd 200611 of 31 Fit to play It is said that: What does this mean? ‘You must make sure that you are fit to play sport and don’t just play sport to get fit’ Body conditioning is important in preventing injury. An athlete should prepare their body for the demands of their activity.
© Boardworks Ltd 200612 of 31 Body conditioning One way of preparing your body for sport is weight training. Weight training can: Tougher tendons, ligaments and bones are harder to damage, therefore the risk of injury is reduced. increase tendon strength increase ligament strength increase bone strength.
© Boardworks Ltd 200613 of 31 Body conditioning Some sports require a high degree of flexibility. Flexibility training can help participants to prepare for sports like gymnastics, diving, martial arts and climbing, where the body is required to perform extreme movements. Increasing a participant’s range of movement reduces the risk of injuries like sprained and pulled muscles. The easiest way to increase flexibility is by stretching. Yoga and similar activities can also help.
© Boardworks Ltd 200614 of 31 Body conditioning Fatigue is associated with problems like cramp and dehydration. Fatigue can also lead to a loss of proper technique, causing injuries. Improved fitness helps to prevent performers becoming excessively fatigued during their activity. Endurance training can also help to prevent injury. What could happen to a rock climber if they became very fatigued? What could happen to a swimmer?
© Boardworks Ltd 200615 of 31 Body conditioning
© Boardworks Ltd 200616 of 31 Correct technique Poor technique can lead to injury. It can cause you to have a sudden accident like a crash or a fall. Think of four sports where injuries can be caused by poor technique. Over a long period, poor technique in sports like rowing and weightlifting can cause strains or joint damage. What sort of injuries could be caused? © EMPICS Ltd
© Boardworks Ltd 200617 of 31 Warm-up By warming-up properly you will reduce the risk of soft tissue injuries like pulled muscles, strains and sprains. The aim of a good warm-up is to gradually prepare the body for exercise. This is done by: increasing body temperature, making muscles, tendons and ligaments more elastic stretching to increase the range of movement around joints. A thorough warm-up should consist of three main stages:
© Boardworks Ltd 200618 of 31 Warm-up Stage 1: light aerobic work Light continuous activity such as slow jogging, is used to increase heart rate and blood flow. Muscles, ligaments and synovial fluid in the joints are warmed, increasing flexibility. Stage 2: stretches Stretching the main muscle groups and joints increases their elasticity and mobility so that they are less likely to be strained. Stage 3: specific stretches and skills-related exercises The final stretches and exercises will tackle the muscles that come under particular stress during the planned activity, for example, a javelin thrower may do some throws at 50% of maximum effort.
© Boardworks Ltd 200619 of 31 Warm-up
© Boardworks Ltd 200620 of 31 Balanced competition Would you allow these two individuals to compete against each other in a boxing match? Why not? In order to make a competition safe for participants, it is important that the organizers balance it.
© Boardworks Ltd 200621 of 31 Balanced competition It is particularly important in contact sports that competitors are reasonably evenly matched. This reduces the risk of injury to younger or weaker competitors. There are many different ways of balancing competition. AGE Many sports have junior leagues or competitions. GENDER Women and men compete separately in most sports. WEIGHT Many combative sports like boxing and wrestling have different weight divisions. SKILL Most sports have separate competitions for beginners.
© Boardworks Ltd 200622 of 31 The rules of the game Rules and laws in sport are not just there to ensure fair play – they are also designed to protect participants. The rules of each sport depend on a number of factors, including the level of contact and the equipment used. Think of how the rules in the following sports help to protect participants. 1.Ice hockey 2.Boxing 3.Track cycling
© Boardworks Ltd 200623 of 31 The rules of the game Referees and officials play an important role in ensuring safety, by enforcing the rules. There are a number of ways in which offending players can be dealt with: 1.Warning from the referee 2.Advantage/points given to opponents 3.Sending players off, either permanently or temporarily. 4.Disciplinary proceedings, including lengthy bans. How do these punishments help to improve safety?
© Boardworks Ltd 200624 of 31 The rules of the game
© Boardworks Ltd 200625 of 31 The rules of the game: a case study During the 2005 Lions rugby tour of New Zealand, Brian O’Driscoll, the Lions captain, suffered a dislocated shoulder when he was tackled by two New Zealand players. Video footage later showed that O’Driscoll had been lifted off his feet and driven into the ground head-first in what is termed a ‘spear-tackle’ Why is this type of tackle particularly dangerous?
© Boardworks Ltd 200626 of 31 The rules of the game: a case study The IRB rules state that: “A player must not tackle an opponent early, late or dangerously.” Although the evidence emerged too late to take action against the New Zealand players, the footage was presented to a conference of referees. Referees have been instructed to be vigilant against this kind of tackle and punish offenders harshly. Players found guilty of spear-tackling can be suspended for up to 6 months. Do you think that this will deter players from spear-tackling opponents?
© Boardworks Ltd 200627 of 31 Is the playing area safe? Before sporting activity commences, teachers or match officials must check that the playing area is safe. Pitches must be checked for glass and other sharp objects, and sports halls need to be checked for wet or damaged floors. Javelin Sailing Basketball Rugby Long jump Ski jumping What other factors could affect the playing area? For each of the following sports, consider the safety implications of freezing temperatures, strong winds and the permanent fixtures required (e.g., goals, nets).
© Boardworks Ltd 200628 of 31 Cool-down A proper cool-down after activity prevents muscles and joints becoming stiff and sore. It helps you to recover more quickly so that you are ready to take part in activity again sooner. A cool-down should consist of some light aerobic work followed by stretches. Keeping the blood moving prevents it pooling in the limbs which can cause light-headedness. Stretching helps to disperse lactic acid.
© Boardworks Ltd 200629 of 31 Preventing injury
© Boardworks Ltd 200630 of 31 Exam-style questions 1.Pablo is about to play volleyball in a sports hall. Pablo often has stiff hamstrings the day after playing. a)List three things that he should do before playing to reduce the risk of injury. b)Explain the importance of body conditioning in preventing injury. c)How could Pablo prevent this? 2.Explain the roles of rules and officials in ensuring the safety of competitors. 3.Give a detailed description of a warm-up that is appropriate for a squash player.
© Boardworks Ltd 200631 of 31 Glossary of keywords Warm-up Cool-down Blood pooling Correct technique Body conditioning Balanced competition Flexibility
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