Presentation on theme: "EdTech Group, Mar ’04 Informal Learning Boundaries: How blurred is it? Giasemi."— Presentation transcript:
EdTech Group, Mar ’04 Informal Learning Boundaries: How blurred is it? Giasemi
EdTech, Mar ‘04 What is Informal Learning? Mocker & Spear (1982), Model of Lifelong Learning What (objectives) InstitutionLearner How (means) InstitutionFormal Learning Non-formal Learning LearnerInformal Learning Self-directed Learning
EdTech, Mar ‘04 What is Informal Learning? Primary Agency Teacher(s)Learner(s) Knowledge Structure Pre- Established Formal Schooling, Elders' teachings Non-formal education, Further education SituationalInformal Education, Informal Training Self-directed learning, Collective learning Livingstone (2001), Livingstone (2001), Basic Types of Learning “When teachers or mentors take responsibility for instructing others without sustained reference to an intentionally-organized body of knowledge in more incidental and spontaneous learning situations, such as guiding them in acquiring job skills or in community development activities, the form of learning is informal education or informal training” “…all other forms of intentional or tacit learning in which we engage either individually or collectively without direct reliance on a teacher or an externally-organized curriculum can be termed self- directed or collective informal learning”
EdTech, Mar ‘04 What is Informal Learning? Primary Agency Teacher(s)Learner(s) Knowledge Structure Pre- Established Formal Schooling, Elders' teachings Non-formal education, Further education SituationalSelf-directed learning, Collective learning Informal Education, Informal Training Livingstone (2001), Livingstone (2001), Basic Types of Learning Informal learning is any activity involving the pursuit of understanding, knowledge or skill which occurs without the presence of externally imposed curricular criteria.
EdTech, Mar ‘04 What is Informal Learning? “Conceptions of both self-directed informal learning and informal education to date have been quite insensitive to distinctions between intentional and more diffuse forms of learning. Intentional informal learning and intentional informal training can be distinguished from everyday perceptions, general socialization and more tacit informal learning or training by peoples' own conscious identification of the activity as significant learning or training.” (Livingstone 2001)
EdTech, Mar ‘04 What is Informal Learning? Example 1 Day - Time - Place: 2, morning, at work People involved: Only me Objects/resources used: Book Background/objectives: To understand basics of activity theory What happened: I began to read an advanced book on activity theory and its applications. It became apparent that I needed to understand the central ideas first of all. I used a general HCI textbook and looked up activity theory and found just a short, manageable section explaining the idea that human work activity comprises the activity, actions and operators by which the actions are completed. Problems encountered: Comments/notes: Often I find that recognising familiar words but in a less daunting context makes it easier for me to return to the original (more complex) task.
EdTech, Mar ‘04 What is Informal Learning? Example 2 Day - Time - Place: 1, morning, at work People involved: Interflora call centre member of staff Objects/resources used: Post-it note with name + address of relative. Phone number of interflora. Credit Card Background/objectives: To send some flowers to a relative for their birthday What happened: I have never sent flowers before and was even more uncertain as to how to do this over the phone. I expected to have to read out the whole address but was only asked for name and postcode. I had to specify the time and date for delivery which was an easy task but also to say what sort of flowers. This was harder because it wasn't clear what level of specification was required or what terminology to use. But I tried bright colours and scented and this seemed acceptable. I also had to state an amount to pay. This was easier because the lady gave me a range of prices to choose from. I also gave my credit card details and had to give a message to go on the card. Problems encountered: my credit card was slightly unusual in that there has no title before my name and this baffled the lady for a while. I also have difficulty transcribing numbers when they are read out to me so had to ask her to repeat the reference number for my order. Comments/notes: I would say that I learned this morning how to order flowers. I know what the important questions and issues are and the order in which they arise. I wouldn't feel nervous about repeating the process and was glad that for the most it was a pain-free, well structured process.
EdTech, Mar ‘04 What is Informal Learning? Example 3 Day - Time - Place: 2, noon, at travel shop People involved: Member of staff in travel shop Objects/resources used: Timetables. Map of Birmingham. Background/objectives: To find out where IKEA was and how to get there. What happened: Whilst buying my bus pass I asked the man how to get to IKEA. He described to me where it was and explained how to get there on the bus. It would take 3 buses and take a long time. Problems encountered: He had to repeat the numbers for the different buses several times as I couldn't keep that many different numbers in my head at once. Comments/notes: I was amazed that he knew all the different bus numbers and routes.
EdTech, Mar ‘04 What is Informal Learning? ‘Significant learning or training’ How do we define ‘significance’? How can we make sure all have same notion of ‘significance’? What is the timescale for determining ‘significance’? Can we tell immediately after or do we need a set period after learning before we can decide? When does it stop being information gathering and becomes learning? If we design learning support, are we entitled to decide at the time of learning if something will be significant to the learner later?
EdTech, Mar ‘04 What is Informal Learning? Goal of Learning Explicitly defined by Unspecified TeacherLearner Process of Learning Explicitly defined by Teacher Intentional, formal learning Learner Intentional, informal learning Non-prescribed Unintentional, informal learning Vavoula (WiP), Typology of Learning
EdTech, Mar ‘04 What is Informal Learning? Thoughts??